“I Stand With You” As The Whole World Crumbles!!!

This is a well researched essay and worth the time to read! It will make you think and possibly scare the complacency out of you! It is posted at – http://www.wolkeworks.com/I_Stand_With_You.html where there are many other articles worth reading.

The photos are my additions.


“Obama’s victory was more than a progressive move; it was a dialectical leap ushering in a qualitatively new era of struggle. Marx once compared revolutionary struggle with the work of a mole who sometimes burrows so far beneath the ground that he leaves no trace of his movement on the surface. This is the old ‘revolutionary mole’ not only showing his traces on the surface but also breaking through.” – Frank Chapman of the Communist Party of the USA’s newspaper, People’s Weekly World on January 12, 2008 after Obama’s Iowa Caucus victory.
Just who is Barack Hussein Obama? Is he just another “progressive” member of the Democratic Party? Or could he be something worse, a conscious agent of a foreign power? Does he have a secret agenda to harm the United States? Or is he simply someone whose well- meaning policies have turned out to be antithetical to the interests of the American people? What follows is necessarily speculative, but if you connect the dots, the case should do more than raise eyebrows.
If you look at the rise of Barack Obama from obscure community organizer to President of the United States you have to be amazed at the speed in which he climbed to the heights of power and the total lack of qualifications he exhibited before attaining the highest office. You also have to wonder about the people in his past and their associations.
As many people know by now, Obama was the product of Stanley Ann Dunham, a girl who was far left in her politics and somehow enamored with dark skin men who were anti-American. Her parents were apparently also far left anti-Americans and they moved to a suburb of Seattle, Washington, so that their young girl could attend Mercer Island High School. It was run by a communist who also ran the “little red church on the hill”, a Unitarian church that the Dunham family attended.
Dunham allegedly married Barack Obama, Sr., a student from Kenya whom she met in Russian classes at the University of Hawaii. About five months after their alleged marriage (there are no records of it available), Stanley Ann gave birth to the man we know as Barack
The Psychopath?
Hussein Obama, but who was called Barry in his youth. The two, Stanley and Barack Sr., never lived together and almost immediately after giving birth, Stanley Ann left to attend the University of Washington in Seattle. Obama, Sr., left to attend Harvard University not too long after that. So young Obama never saw his father until he was ten years old in 1971 and that was a short visit. Meanwhile, Stanley Ann found another third world, leftist husband, Lolo Soetoro, from Indonesia and went to Jakarta to live with him, taking along young Barry. During his stint in Indonesia, Barry attended a school where he was listed as a Muslim and where he liked to attend Koran classes. One of his former classmates describes him then as a devout Muslim.
In any case, when Lolo started to work for an American oil company and actually became pro-American, Stanley Ann sent young Barack back to Hawaii to ensure he would be under the guidance of her appropriately anti-American parents.
In due course, Barry’s grandfather, also named Stanley Dunham, decided that the young lad needed a black male role model and mentor and sent the 10 year old to be guided by his friend, Frank Marshall Davis, a black member of the Communist Party, poet, pornographer, bisexual pedophile and sexual predator. Barry remained under the influence of Davis until he left for college at age 18.
There are reasons to believe that Davis may have actually been Obama’s father. In one of his books, Davis describes a young white girl named Ann as one of his frequent sex partners, and Obama looks more like Davis than he does Barack, Sr. (For one thing, Obama has a lot of facial skin tags as did Davis.) Likewise, Davis had pictures of a nude girl that closely resemble Stanley Ann, although who she actually was has not been proven. Perhaps that’s the reason Barack Obama, Sr., never showed that much interest in his son but Davis did. According to one theory, Barack Sr. was allegedly persuaded to provide a name for the infant in return for extending his visa in the United States. In any case, young Obama was handed over to Davis for mentoring.
It was during this period that Barry attended an elite Honolulu private school, Punahou, noted for its international students and, according to some, an anti-American ideology. Considering that Obama was schooled as a Muslim in Indonesia and at an international school during his formative years, where and when was he taught to think of himself as an American?
While at Punahou, he started out well but soon saw his academic achievements deteriorate, possibly due to his hanging out with the “Choom gang”, a sort of marijuana smokers club. That was not surprising since Davis was heavily into drinking and drug use. What other influences Davis had on young Obama are not readily apparent, although since Davis was into various sexual perversions, perhaps he influenced the child’s views on sexuality. This was a man who took the young boy to bars to drink booze, smoke pot, and watch pornographic cartoons being projected on the walls. Young Obama spent a lot of his youth doing drugs and drinking booze. Moreover, in a poem Obama wrote about Davis, he mentioned the amber stain they both had on their shorts. Was this a reference to a sexual relationship? In later life, various people would accuse Obama of being bisexual and a member of a gay men’s club in Chicago. One thing we can be certain of is that young Barry was indoctrinated with communism by Davis and probably his grandfather, Stanley.

davis ann barry s
Barry went to Occidental College, noted as the Moscow of California, where he was described by one of his associates at the time, Jim Drew, as not just sympathetic to communism, but an ardent communist revolutionary. This is when he changed his name to Barack Hussein Obama even though he had probably been adopted in Indonesia as Barry Soetoro and may well have been a citizen of that country. His roommates and friends there included Pakistanis Wahid Hamid and Mohamed Hasan Chandoo. After Occidental, Obama allegedly made a trip to Pakistan in 1981.
What’s interesting is that Obama never mentioned this Pakistan trip in either of his autobiographies, nor did he apparently mention it to anyone else until telling the press in April 2008 that he knew more about foreign policy than John McCain and Hillary Clinton because he had visited Pakistan and knew the difference between Sunni and Shia Muslims. (That was an astoundingly arrogant and foolish remark, but that’s Obama.) Apparently, Obama didn’t want the trip to be known, which is quite suspicious. So why mention it then? Perhaps because the previous month, March 2008, three contract employees at the State Department were caught looking at Obama, McCain and Hillary Clinton’s passports. The firm one of the employees worked for, Analysis Corp., was headed by John O. Brennan who later became Obama’s Deputy National Security Advisor for Homeland Security and Counter-TerrorismandeventuallyheadoftheCIA. Sowhyhad Obama never mentioned the trip to Pakistan? And why did he mention it just after someone who worked for Brennan was caught looking at his passport file? Were McCain and Clinton included just to confuse who the real target was?
One possibility is that the passport was being altered by the employee either to add, remove or replace information. What if the reason Obama never mentioned Pakistan is that he never actually went to Pakistan? All we have is Obama’s word for it that he visited Pakistan since his passport is not available. What if he went somewhere else in 1981? What if he went to the Soviet Union or some other east bloc country for training and that information had to be expunged and replaced by a cover story? If you look at the trade craft of Soviet moles and American traitors, they typically go overseas to meet their KGB handlers for instructions, which is why overseas travel is carefully scrutinized by those granting security clearances. Obama would never qualify for a security clearance, given his background and unexplained overseas travel.
Interestingly, Obama has gone overseas just before each major change in his life. And those changes were step ups in his status and ambition. In 1981, it was just before transferring from Occidental to Columbia. In 1988, he went to Europe and Kenya for several weeks just before heading to Harvard Law School. In 2006, he visited Kenya as a senator just before announcing his candidacy for president. And in 2008, he toured Europe as a candidate just before being elected president.
Is there a reason to suspect Obama may have become a mole? Aside from his communist revolutionary beliefs at the time, consider that two years after graduating from Columbia in New York City, Obama moved to Chicago in 1985, the previous home of his mentor Frank Marshall Davis, to become a community organizer. Obama’s ostensible reason for moving to Chicago was that he was inspired, he said, by the election of Harold Washington as mayor of that city. Washington was someone with close connections to the Communist Party and other socialist groups who backed him during his candidacy. So Obama said he applied for a job as community organizer with the Developing Communities Project.
Davis, who worked for most of his life in Chicago, was a member of the Communist Party USA, an organization actually funded from Moscow until 1989. In fact, the Communist Party USA was founded in Chicago back in 1919 and that city still has a very active Marxist culture. With the fall of the Soviet Union and the opening of KGB records, we know that some of the Chicago Communists were actually on Moscow’s payroll as agents of influence. And we also know that the Communist Party USA branch in Hawaii when Davis was living there was actually run from Moscow. From his time in Chicago, Davis always followed the propaganda line from Moscow in his writings and newspaper columns, no matter how ridiculous.
Presumably, then, he was a Soviet agent. Suppose Obama was groomed by Davis from youth to become a mole? Suppose that Davis told Moscow about his young charge, a bright kid who was so damaged by abandonment, so desperate to be important, and so lacking in moral upbringing as to be perfectly pliable? And even more important, the kid was already brainwashed to be a communist.
This was a kid who asked his schoolmates whether they would rather be a wealthy businessman, a military general or president of the United States. And when one answered businessman and the other military general, Obama told them he’d rather be president because the military general would protect him and the businessman would give him money. This was a kid who was seriously conflicted about his racial identity and finally decided he was black, suggesting that his mother and grandparent’s whiteness was associated with negative emotions of worthlessness and abandonment, while Davis’s black skin was associated with acceptance. It’s also probably how he became extraordinarily narcissistic. Obama is someone who has serious psychological issues.
After returning from his trip to Pakistan or wherever it was he actually went, Barack transferred to Columbia University, another far left institution, in New York after two years at Occidental, presumably under either an affirmative action or foreign student program since it’s unlikely Barack’s grades were stellar at Occidental where he admits he didn’t really study. According to one person who was at Columbia at the same time as Obama, that university very seldom accepted transfers from other schools and those were only the cream of the crop. So why Obama? Did someone among the school’s many communist administrators and professors arrange it under instructions from Moscow?
At this time, Obama said his ambition while at Columbia was to be a novelist, although if he ever wrote anything fiction, aside from some bad poetry, it hasn’t been disclosed. Considering the acclaim his writing skills for “Dreams From My Father” garnered, you’d think there would be some fictional works the would-be novelist wrote. But “Dreams From My Father” is sheer poetry and there’s nothing Obama has ever written (and there’s actually not much that he has written at all) even close to it in style or technical brilliance. Obama’s poetry is nothing exceptional, for example, and his essays are clunkers. It’s widely believed that Bill Ayers wrote the book since it contains scenes and depictions found in Ayers’ own stories. Moreover, Ayers keeps insisting in public that he actually wrote “Dreams From My Father” and jokes that if anyone can prove it he’ll split the royalties. Maybe that’s why Obama actually majored in political science and international relations.

Why Ayers would write an autobiography for Obama isn’t known, but clearly, it was that book that convinced many people that Obama is a genius despite no other accomplishments. It may be that if Obama was being groomed for high office, Ayers was recruited by Moscow to provide Obama with a stellar biography and reputation.
The reason for going to Columbia is unclear, but as a hotbed of Marxism, perhaps that attracted Barack. Or it could be that his Soviet handlers decided he needed better credentials for future work and Columbia is prestigious enough. At Columbia, it seems few people can remember knowing Barack Obama. We do know he lived off campus with Pakistani roommate Sohale Siddiqi just a few blocks from where Bill Ayers lived at the time and that he attended socialist conferences at Cooper Union. Among his professors that later became close to him at Columbia we can count Khalid Rashidi, a pro- Palestinian activist. Perhaps it’s Obama’s upbringing as a Muslim in Indonesia that attracted him to foreign Muslim friends and led to sympathy for Islamic causes.
In 1985, then, Obama arrived in Chicago where he came to work with the communist/socialist network. His entre was probably Frank Marshall Davis, who apparently knew most of the people who would eventually help young Obama. But Obama’s immediate reason for being in Chicago, as previously indicated, was to become director of Developing Communities Project, a church-based community organizing group that he made a separate non-profit in 1986. While working for them, he sent a letter to Chicago mayor Harold Washington in 1987 asking for an endorsement for his organization. He listed as members of his board such people as Black (third world, actually) Liberation Theologists Rev. Jeremiah Wright and Father Pfleger, as well as John Ayers, the brother of unrepentant terrorist, Bill Ayers. Obama also worked for the Gamaliel Foundation as a “consultant and trainer” in the tactics of Saul “The Red” Alinsky, the author of “Rules for Radicals” whose book is dedicated to Lucifer. On the board of Gamaliel was professor John L. McKnight, who taught Obama Alinsky tactics probably starting in 1982 when Obama was still at Columbia and an intern for Gamaliel. (McKnight’s organization recruited 20 interns in 1982 for staffing in several cities, including New York.)
In his 1995 memoir, Obama said he wanted to go to Harvard Law School to “learn power’s currency in all its intricacy,” with the goal of “making large-scale change” as a national politician. So Obama approached McKnight to write a letter of recommendation, which he did. Obama, who McKnight admitted was a poor student, also probably got letters of recommendation from Newton Minow (JFK’s head of the FCC) who was on the board of trustees at Northwestern University where McKnight was teaching, and whose daughter, Martha, was dean of Harvard Law School. Minow was also a senior lawyer at Sidley Austin law firm where Obama did internships at Martha’s recommendation. Was sending Obama to that law firm a way to connect him with his future handler, Valerie Jarrett? Jarrett did work there at the time. Another letter of recommendation probably came from Thomas Ayers, the father of William Ayers, who was also on the board of trustees with Minow. Why were all these people so interested in helping a man with no particular accomplishments, even academically, into Harvard Law?
The wealthy Thomas Ayers, CEO of Consolidated Edison and sometimes called the Godfather of Chicago Politics, may have helped finance Obama’s education. According to Thomas Ayers’ mailman, Allen Hulton, he met young Obama at the home of Thomas Ayers. “He was very polite, dressed nicely, but informally – slacks and a dress shirt – and he spoke with no accent. Immediately this young black man entered into a conversation with me. He told me he had taken the train out from Chicago and had come to thank the Ayers family personally for having helped him with his education. “Hulton remembers asking the young man what his plans were for the future. “He looked at me and told me he was going to be president of the United States,” Hulton says. “There was a little bit of a grin on his face when he said it – he sounded sure of himself, but not arrogant. I know how people will say things because they have an ambition, but it did not come across that way,” Hulton says. “It came across as if this young black male was telling me he was going to be president, almost as if it were a
statement of a scientific fact that had already been predetermined, as if his being president has already been pre-arranged.”
Hulton also said that Thomas Ayers once gave him a lecture on how the working man was being exploited by rich capitalists. Was Thomas Ayers a Marxist? It certainly seems so. Why did Thomas Ayers take an interest in Barack Obama? Probably because one of Ayers’ close friends was the ubiquitous Frank Marshall Davis. It seems reasonable that Davis recommended Obama to Ayers and Ayers probably introduced Obama to his son, William, the Marxist terrorist.
In 1988 Obama left to attend Harvard Law School but returned to Chicago to work at Sidley Austin law firm in the summer 1989 where Valerie Jarrett introduced him to Michelle Robinson, his immediate boss who later became his wife. Not surprisingly, Jarrett’s maternal grandfather, Robert Rochon Taylor, was a Communist Party member and friend of Frank Marshall Davis. Her father-in-law, Vernon Jarrett, was also a communist and friend of Davis’s who apparently knew Khalid al-Mansour, formerly known as Donald Warden. Warden was a radical black power advocate and Marxist who was one of the “Chicago Eight” responsible for rioting during the 1968 Chicago Democratic Party convention.
Vernon Jarrett wrote an article in 1979 about al-Mansour, reporting that al-Mansour was asking rich Arabs to fund the education of black American kids, presumably to help induce them to become Muslims. So, perhaps Davis also prevailed upon his friend Vernon Jarrett to contact al-Mansour and recommend Obama as a candidate for that educational funding, especially since Obama was schooled in Islam while in Indonesia and his alleged Kenyan father’s family were Muslims. Sutton Percy, a New Yorker connected to Marxists there, said that al-Mansour asked him to write a letter of recommendation for Obama to Harvard Law, which Sutton did. Interestingly, in 1979, Obama was in Chicago. Did he meet with Vernon Jarrett or al- Mansour? My guess is that he did.
After law school, Valerie Jarrett initially worked for Mayor Harold Washington, another of Chicago’s communist officials who stocked his administration with communists and socialists. It was while she worked for Washington that she first hired Michelle Robinson who later married Barack Obama.
In 1991 Obama returned to Chicago after getting his law degree. He worked for ACORN’s Project Vote, and helped to elect another Chicago communist, Carol Moseley Braun, to the US Senate. In 1994, Obama became chief of staff for Alice Palmer in her run for a Congressional seat. Palmer was a communist and probably a paid agent of influence for the Soviet Union back in the 1980’s. In a 1995 party at the house of Bill Ayers to introduce Barack Obama’s entre into politics, Palmer anointed Obama as her heir to the Illinois Senate seat she was vacating. When Palmer’s Congressional bid fizzled, she wanted her old Illinois Senate seat back but Obama refused and had her disqualified on the ballot. Palmer, who fell out with Obama after that, later joined the socialist New Party of which Obama was also a member.
When Obama finally reached the White House, his closest advisor was Valerie Jarrett, who is still there and considered by some to be the actual power behind the throne who acts as Obama’s eyes and ears and, some say, brain. Perhaps her real mission is to keep an eye on Obama and direct policy. The other main advisor was David Axelrod who decamped for Chicago to run Obama’s 2012 re-election campaign. Interestingly, Axelrod was mentored and taught politics by a member of the Communist Party USA, David Canter, who was probably a paid agent of the Soviet Union. Canter’s father Harry, was a committed communist who even moved his family to Moscow. When he returned to America he came to Chicago and worked, as you might have guessed, with Frank Marshall Davis.
So, to put it together, young Obama was more than likely turned into a communist by his mentor, Frank Marshall Davis, and his family, and then sent to Occidental, known for its far left climate. Sometime during this period, Obama was probably officially recruited by the Soviet KGB to be a mole. His 1981 trip abroad was probably to meet his Soviet handler and get further instructions, including what to study and who to meet at Columbia. His first connection with the Chicago communist network was by applying for an internship with Gamaliel Foundation and so it was natural for Obama to relocate to the old home of his mentor and start making connections with radical Marxists.

In 1988 he was probably instructed to go to law school, presumably the best that would accept him, and Davis made sure his contacts wrote letters of recommendation. That the daughter of Thomas Ayers was dean of Harvard Law probably made him a shoo-in even if he didn’t have distinguished grades at Columbia. Before going to Harvard, Obama went overseas again and likely met his Soviet handler for further instructions, including that he should enter politics and possibly run for president. Ayers and the Saudis probably financed Obama’s time at Harvard.
Obama’s connection with the Saudis, Palestinians and other Muslims was also probably deemed a plus by the Soviets and one of the benefits of recruiting him. Some people think Obama is a closet Muslim while others think he’s an atheist who joined the Rev. Wright’s church to gain “street cred.” But being so supportive of Islam provides cover since Obama is seen as a Muslim tool, not that of the Russians.
It was Martha Minow who greased Obama’s way into the Sidley Austin law firm where her father was employed and which was a hot bed of leftist sympathizers, including Bernadine Dohrn, the terrorist wife of William Ayers. First year law students virtually never get to intern at major law firms. While at that law firm, Jarrett probably became his American handler. (It would be interesting to see when and where Jarrett went overseas for vacations or business.) It’s also possible that Michelle Robinson was recruited to be his cover, to provide a respectable family image despite his alleged gay sex life and drug use, in return for her riding his coattails into the final objective, the White House. In fact, when Obama lost his first bid to be a congressman, she reportedly almost left him.
After graduation from law school, Obama returned again to Chicago and started his political activities, working on the campaigns of various communists or socialists, until he gained enough experience and “street cred” among the city’s black south side population to enter politics himself. He went up the political ladder as fast as possible, from being elected state senator in 1997 to being elected United States senator in 2004 (aided when Carol Mosely Braun stepped aside for him). In 2004, he gave an impressive speech at the Democratic Party convention which fueled speculation that he might be presidential timber. But he wisely said he wasn’t ready. In fact, on November 8, 2004, after his election as senator, Obama said, “You know, I am a believer in knowing what you’re doing when you apply for a job. And I think that if I were to seriously consider running on a national ticket, I would essentially have to start now, before having served a day in the Senate. Now there are some people who might be comfortable with that, but I’m not one of those people.” However, that reticence to run for the presidency lasted until February 2007, when he announced his candidacy for president after having served only two years as a senator.
In 2005, Obama was adopted as a protege by Republican senator Richard Lugar of Indiana, one of the few Repubicans who was a creature of the fascist manipulator George Soros. Lugar took Obama on an arms control inspection trip to Russia, Ukraine and Azerbaijan in 2005. No doubt there were plenty of opportunities to meet with Russian handlers (fascists now, not communists) including when the American party was detained for several hours for no good reason and Obama was confined alone to a room in the airport. In 2006, Obama went abroad again, to Kenya, and perhaps met again with a Russian handler.
Did his Russian handlers push him into aggressively pursuing the office despite his misgivings? Did Obama really expect to win the nomination then? Or was it a Russian ploy to “prove” that a racist America would never consider a black man for president and thereby embarrass us.? Is that why Michelle Obama, surprised that her husband was winning, said that for the first time in her adult life she was proud of her country? If they thought America was so bad, why make a hopeless run for president? In any case, why would the Russians want to embarrass the United States? After all, the Soviet Union disintegrated and ostensibly communism was defeated in 1991, so the Russians were supposed to be no longer a threat.
The foreign intelligence requirements of the new Russian government did not end, of course, with the demise of the Soviet Union, and the functions of the KGB still had to continue even if that organization didn’t. So the new Russian government still had the Foreign Intelligence Service (SVR). One of the methods the SVR uses to obtain information and influence is through moles, that is, people who are recruited at a young age, normally using ideological indoctrination, and then groomed to enter strategically useful occupations in sensitive positions when they reach adulthood. One recent example of this was the arrest in 2010 of ten Russian agents, the so-called “Illegals Program.” The ten agents were what Russians call “sleeper agents” or moles, who were educated to pass as Americans and then insinuate themselves into useful jobs.
The present Russian government is fascist by nature and has nationalistic ambitions. It is led by President Vladimir Putin, a former KGB official. To get an idea of what the Russians intend to achieve by the use of a mole as an influence agent, and why they still want to bring down the United States, consider the textbook, “Foundations of Geopolitics” written in 1997 by Alexander Dugin, a known fascist, and General Nikolai Klokotov of the military’s General Staff. The book is very popular with Russian national security and foreign policy officials and is used as a textbook by the General Staff Academy and other educational institutions. Klokotov stated that it would serve as a “mighty ideological foundation for preparing a new military command.”
The book declares that “the battle for the world rule of [ethnic] Russians” has not ended and Russia remains “the staging area of a new anti-bourgeois, anti-American revolution.” The Eurasian Empire will be constructed “on the fundamental principle of the common enemy: the rejection of Atlanticism, strategic control of the USA, and the refusal to allow liberal values to dominate us.”
It also states that Russia should use its special forces, including moles, within the borders of the United States to fuel instability and separatism, by, for example, provoking “Afro-American racists.” According to the book, Russia should “introduce geopolitical disorder into internal American activity, encouraging all kinds of separatism and ethnic, social and racial conflicts, actively supporting all dissident movements – extremist, racist, and sectarian groups, thus destabilizing internal political processes in the U.S. It would also make sense simultaneously to support isolationist tendencies in American politics.”
In June 2008, Obama beat out Hillary Clinton to win the Democratic Party nomination to run for president. One month later, Obama went abroad again, this time as the party’s nominee, as if there were voters out in Germany who needed persuading to vote for him. So why go abroad to campaign? Was the trip really a ploy to meet with his Russian handlers and receive more instructions on what they expected from him as president? Is the Obama program really directed from Moscow to further the agenda outlined in “Foundations of Geopolitics” book?
If you wonder how Obama could introduce “geopolitical disorder” into the United States, consider why Van Jones, an admitted communist who was recruited by Valerie Jarrett to be Obama’s “Green Jobs” czar wanted to take over the “Occupy Wall Street” movement. If you want to know why Obama encourages illegal immigration, appoints members of the Mexican separatist group “La Raza” to his administration, and tries to stop states from enforcing the borders, consider the above goals. If you want to know why Obama has brought so many members of the Muslim Brotherhood into his administration, consider the above goals. If you want to know why Obama is so racially divisive, consider the above goals. If you want to know why Obama is trying to wreck us financially, consider the above goals. If you wonder why leftists are encouraged to be as nasty as possible towards anyone on the right, further dividing the country, consider the above goals.

As for America’s role in the world, Dugin and Klokotov’s book emphasizes that Russia must spread Anti-Americanism everywhere: “the main ‘scapegoat’ will be precisely the U.S.” What’s more, they stress the “continental Russian-Islamic alliance” which lies “at the foundation of the anti-Atlanticist strategy.” The alliance is based on the “traditional character of Russian and Islamic civilization.” The book calls Iran a key ally and uses the term “Moscow-Tehran axis.”
So, if you want to know why Obama would insult our traditional Atlantic allies, such as the United Kingdom, while supporting our enemies, such as trying to force the Hondurans to disregard their own constitution and allow their president, an ally of Venezuela’s former dictator Chavez, to remain in office past his allowed two terms, consider the above objectives. If you wonder why Obama would tell Russia’s Medvedev that he would have more flexibility to meet Russian goals after he’s reelected, consider the above objectives.
Although it hasn’t been confirmed, the Israeli Avi Lipkin (also known as Victor Mordecai) claims that on January 19, 2010 his wife Rachel, a native born Egyptian Jew, picked up a broadcast on Nile TV from Egypt. It was a round table discussion in which the Foreign Minister of Egypt, Ahmed Aboul Gheit, was quoted saying that in a one-on- one meeting with Barack Obama, our president swore to him that he was a Muslim. Gheit, who did, indeed, meet privately with Obama in 2009, continued by saying Obama told him, “I have a problem with some domestic issues. And as soon as I finish with the healthcare question you Muslims will see what I will do for Islam regarding Israel.”
So, if you wonder why Obama in conjunction with his close friend, Turkey’s president Ergogan, as well as the Saudis, have been actively supporting the overthrow of secular regimes that were cooperating with us in Libya, Tunisia, Egypt, Yemen and now Syria, only to replace them with Muslim Brotherhood Islamists who are our enemies and are likely to go to war with Israel eventually, consider the above Russian objectives. If you wonder why Obama let our staff in Benghazi die rather than save them, while putting out an absurd lie that it was a mob attack provoked by a movie from months before that nobody had ever seen, then realize that promoting the idea that an American movie incited the mob is a meme they were trying to create designed to make the US the scapegoat, just as in the objectives above. If you wonder why Obama didn’t support Iran’s dissidents in 2009, consider whose key ally Tehran is.
If you wonder why Obama has not supported Ukrainian dissidents fighting to prevent closer ties to Moscow in 2014, or even criticized the crackdown against regime opponents in Venezuela by Chavez’s hand-picked successor, consider what Moscow’s interests are. If you wonder why Obama is so diffident towards Muslims and indifferent if not hostile to Christians, consider whose objectives are being met.
After overthrowing the Egyptian government of Mubarak and installing the Muslim Brotherhood’s Morsi, the Egyptian people rebelled and threw them out. Likewise, Obama has been supporting Muslim terrorists who slaughter Christians in Syria as they try to overthrow the pro-Iranian regime of Assad probably at the behest of Saudi Arabia and Turkey. (Obama has yet to criticize the anti- Christian pogrom by Syria’s rebels.) But the Syrian rebels are making no headway, so Obama tried to get US military forces to intervene on behalf of the rebels until the American public objected. His latest tactic seems to be a deception. By creating the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (or the Levant), ISIS, he’s created a false enemy. His alleged solution is to arm the Free Syrian Army, which has been fighting the Syrian regime, so that they’ll fight ISIS. He proposes training them in Saudi Arabia, the very regime that has been financing the overthrow of Syria’s Assad, so that they’ll go after ISIS instead. But there’s no reason to believe the Free Syrian Army, which is composed of Islamists such as al-Qa’ida and the Muslim Brotherhood, will ignore Syria and battle fellow Muslims. Instead, they are likely to combine with ISIS and battle with US supplied arms.
As previously indicated, Obama is a close friend of Turkey’s President Erdogan, an Islamist whose party has pushed that country from being secular into embracing Islam as policy. Initially, Obama, Erdogan, the Saudis and probably George Soros were working together against Russia’s unofficial ally, Iran, but it appears that Obama has betrayed the Saudis, much to their fury, by making a deal with Iran to let them have a nuclear weapons program. Moreover, Turkey’s intelligence service betrayed Iranian dissidents to Tehran who were providing intelligence on Iran’s nuclear program. So, Obama and Turkey are now, along with the Russians, in bed with Iran. Why? Possibly because their program to overthrow Syria and replace Assad with a Sunni Islamic Brotherhood regime is failing, and Egypt is no longer an ally against Israel that it was under Morsi. So now, the only option to destroy Israel is nuclear and for that, they need Iran.
What else could Obama do for the Russians? While at Columbia, Obama wrote an article for a newspaper and also a class paper on nuclear disarmament, blaming the arms race entirely on the United States. Interestingly, nuclear disarmament of the West was a prime objective of the Soviet Union at the time. Nuclear disarmament is still one of Obama’s main interests and he’s done much to reduce the size of the American arsenal if not that of the Russians. According to President Obama, the United States has a moral obligation to disarm as an example to the rest of the world. His 2010 Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty calls for the US to reduce our number of nuclear weapons to about 1550 while also agreeing not to create a missile defense shield in eastern Europe. The Russians must be very pleased.
As of 2013, he’s trying to reduce the number of nuclear weapons even more, to less than a thousand. American weapons, that is. The Russians are actually allowed to build more nuclear weapons since they say they have less than 1550 nuclear weapons and are busy modernizing their arsenal, something we’re not doing. If this sounds like an ideal situation for the Russians, Obama has given the Defense Department orders to plan on reducing our nuclear arsenal even further, down to 300 weapons. Bear in mind that even if you could get to a world where everyone lacked nuclear weapons and couldn’t build them, even the Chinese, Pakistanis, North Koreans, Israelis and Iranians, that would only make the world safe for large-scale conventional war.
Obama has also been firing and replacing flag-ranked officers in unprecedented numbers, leading some to believe that he’s putting his own compliant officers in key positions based on their willingness to open fire on Americans. Some of these key officers were responsible for America’s strategic nuclear forces. What’s more, many Air Force personnel manning the ICBM silos have been accused of various crimes and relieved as a result. Note that all of these people had to obtain a top secret clearance as a result of a comprehensive background investigation. How is it so many are deemed corrupt? Is Obama rendering our nuclear retaliatory capability prostrate?
In addition, he’s stopped several weapons programs such as the Tomahawk Cruise Missile and the Hellfire anti-personnel missiles, as well as drastically reduced the size of the Navy and the number of Army personnel. But he’s also allowed and encouraged illegal aliens to join America’s services at the same time. It should be obvious that Obama is striving to degrade America’s military, which works to the advantage of the Russians.
In America, Obama has been working to undermine the Constitution as he rules by the fiat of executive orders and unilaterally changing laws and deciding which ones to enforce. His economic policies of driving up government debt by many trillions of dollars and creating a welfare state have the earmarks of a Cloward-Piven strategy. (Cloward and Piven devised a plan to bankrupt New York by enlisting as many people as possible to go on welfare. The idea was to destroy the economy and replace it with a socialist state. In fact, they did manage to bankrupt New York City as a result.)
Obama is also working to bring vast numbers of Middle Eastern people into America without even vetting them. Many are likely to be terrorists and many have disappeared once they arrive in this country. He has created the crisis on the border with the massive wave of Central American’s entering this country along the Rio Grande in Texas. Many are vicious gang members and many are sick with a variety of dangerous diseases. Once inside this country, these dangerous people are shipped to locations the administration won’t disclose or simply let loose. It may be that the spread of the severe respiratory Enterovirus D68 that has polio-like symptoms is being spread by Central American children.
In October 2014, America had its first Ebola victim, so it may get much worse. The form of Ebola is far more contagious than previous strains and some believe it may be a weaponized version since the US government has a patent on it. What’s more, Disaster Response Teams reportedly were told months in advance that there would be a disaster in the coming October that would overwhelm EMT and Hospitals. Perhaps that’s true since the administration ordered 160,000 Hazmat suits. What else do we know? Obama put the Center for Disease Control directly under the White House. He also gutted quarantine rules that would help prevent pandemics from entering this country. So, what are the odds that Obama is part of a plot to ravage this country’s population?
If you wanted to allow terrorists into America carrying dirty bombs or chemical weapons, leaving the border unguarded or preventing Border Patrol Agents from defending themselves against assaults would also be s. In fact, that’s being done since Border Patrol personnel are being diverted to Texas. Meanwhile, not only are Central Americans flooding in, but reports indicate a wide variety of other nationalities are joining them, including Islamists.
Interestingly, the Russian Mafia is said to be in charge in Mexico. Presumably, they’re coordinating with Mexican drug gangs and it may be that Putin is behind the plan. Imagine what would happen if America were destroyed by several plagues, such as Ebola or some exotic disease, along with attacks by terrorists. I suspect that, too, is part of the Russian’s plan that Obama appears to be supporting.
The scandals associated with Obama are also an indication of his contempt for America. He directed the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) to not grant tax free status to conservative groups and Obama’s critics are being audited. The National Security Agency (NSA) is now monitoring virtually all communications by Americans in this country, which used to be illegal. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is sending monitors into news rooms to see how they devise editorial policy. Obama, under the Fast and Furious program, has sent thousands of firearms to Mexican drug cartels. Then there’s the Benghazi debacle which looks more and more like a plot to ship American weapons from Libya to Syria that was intercepted by Hamas.
Obama has also been laying the ground work to create a martial law crackdown on right wing opponents. His Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has been buying billions of rounds of ammunition, giving away armored vehicles to police forces, buying armored check point stations and thousands of automatic weapons. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has contracted to build “refugee” camps that resemble prisons with inward facing barbed- wire fences. The Army has a field manual that directs how to run such a camp, including political indoctrination and keeping track of inmates by social security number. The National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) has provisions for the indefinite detention of American citizens in such camps under any pretext. Obama’s executive orders allow him to seize control of all utilities and transportation in this country even in time of peace. The Army and DHS have been practicing urban warfare exercises within large American cities and have recently constructed a mock US city to practice on. Army exercises and manuals stress that the terrorists are likely to be those who want to uphold the Constitution and display other conservative values. Clearly, something sinister is up.

Obama appears to be deliberately instituting a fascist regime in America. Fascism is a way station on the road from Capitalism to Communism. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Obamacare) is wrecking the economy, sowing chaos in the health care industry, adding to debt, depriving people of insurance or driving up their costs drastically, throwing people out of work and putting one-sixth of the US economy directly under the thumb of the government. And it’s not by nationalizing the healthcare industry, it’s by micromanaging it. That’s the difference between socialism and fascism. When the government directly takes over the healthcare industry as the single payer, then it will be socialized medicine. Until then, it’s fascist medicine.
In the end, we still don’t know who Obama really is. His birth certificate is a proven fraud. His draft card is clearly a fake. His social security numbers (he has many) are from a state he never lived in. His academic, government and health records are all sealed and he has spent millions to ensure they can’t be opened. Isn’t it possible, if not probable, that Obama is a mole?
Obama was famously overheard on a hot mic when he told Russia’s then President Medvedev (he was holding the spot for Vladimir Putin who was Prime Minister since Putin, Russia’s real boss, couldn’t run for president again under the Russian constitution) that he needed more space to solve the missile defense issue and that he would be more flexible after his next and last election (in 2012). Medvedev said, “I will transmit this information to Vladimir and I stand with you.” The press has largely ignored the familiar use of Vladimir rather than saying “Putin” or even just “the prime minister”, but more importantly, they’ve also failed to comment on why Medvedev would say, “I stand with you.” Doesn’t that imply that Medvedev knows Obama stands with him?
Now then, if you want to know how Russia could ever achieve the objective, “strategic control of the USA”, consider why they would put a mole in the White House.
By the way, as I usually do, I asked the universe for a sign as to whether this hypothesis is correct. Later that evening, I was walking past the TV as my wife was watching NCIS. I was taken aback when I heard a black character on the show state that he wasn’t really an American. He was from Somalia and was trained by the Soviets in Russia to become an American mole. He said the Russians dropped him off from a submarine near Seattle. I presume the producers of the show were hinting at Obama or using him as a model, but I was amazed at the timing of when and how I saw it.

Content copyright 20152015. . All rights reserved.




In case you have no idea what that is – it is the


One of the worst pieces of legislation ever perpetrated on the american people, under the guise of protection for the people from terrorists, then they changed the definition of terrorist from Islamist Jihadist to Bible carrying Constitutional upholding, American! If you need proof – look up the definition of terrorist in the FBI handbook, the DHS Department rules etc. etc. Then to really make your head spin, look up the targets that the police departments are now using to practice on, so they can shoot without hesitation – pregnant women, children, grandmothers, people in wheelchairs. And you know something, it’s working, because the police are killing people every day by shooting first and asking questions later and they are being allowed to get away with it! Stories about all of this can be found on line, even on Fox News.




Instead of making the administration rein in the spying, the intimidation, the singling out of conservatives by the IRS and telling the President that he and his minions have to abide by the law of this land, CALLED “THE CONSTITUTION”, both parties gave him the OK to keep on going, by approving the NDAA for 2014 without any restrictions! And if it wasn’t for Snowden, and some other “Whistle Blowers”, We the People, would still have no idea how bad the government really is!


http://www.wnd.com/2014/01/congress-grants-obama-free-rein-for-martial-law/#siLiTB6fxWVdUcJW.99 WND EXCLUSIVE CONGRESS GRANTS OBAMA ‘FREE REIN FOR MARTIAL LAW’ ‘Subjugation of citizenry’ looming as U.S. becomes ‘police state’ Published: 1 day ago 1 24 2014  BOB UNRUH About Bob Unruh joined WND in 2006 after nearly three decades with the Associated Press, as well as several Upper Midwest newspapers, where he covered everything from legislative battles and sports to tornadoes and homicidal survivalists. He is also a photographer whose scenic work has been used commercially. Some of the nation’s most respected legal teams are asking the Supreme Court to take up a challenge to the indefinite-detention provisions of the National Defense Authorization Act, charging the law has created the framework for a police state. The controversial provision authorizes the military, under presidential authority, to arrest, kidnap, detain without trial and hold indefinitely American citizens thought to “represent an enduring security threat to the United States.”  Journalist Chris Hedges, who is suing the government over a controversial provision in the National Defense Authorization Act, is seen here addressing a crowd in New York’s Zuccotti Park.


Journalist Chris Hedges is among the plaintiffs charging the law could be used to target journalists who report on terror-related issues. A friend-of-the-court brief submitted in the case states: “The central question now before this court is whether the federal judiciary will stand idly by while Congress and the president establish the legal framework for the establishment of a police state and the subjugation of the American citizenry through the threat of indefinite military arrest and detention, without the right to counsel, the right to confront one’s accusers, or the right to trial.” The brief was submitted to the Supreme Court by attorneys with the U.S. Justice Foundation of Ramona, Calif., Friedman Harfenist Kraut & Perlstein of Lake Success, N.Y., and William J. Olson, P.C. of Vienna, Va. The attorneys are Michael Connelly, Steven J. Harfenist, William J. Olson, Herbert W. Titus, John S. Miles, Jeremiah L. Morgan and Robert J. Olson. They are adding their voices to the chorus asking the Supreme Court to overturn the 2nd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals, which said the plaintiffs didn’t have standing to challenge the law adopted by Congress. The brief is on behalf of U.S. Rep. Steve Stockman, Virginia Delegate Bob Marshall, Virginia Sen. Dick Black, the U.S. Justice Foundation, Gun Owners Foundation, Gun Owners of America, Center for Media & Democracy, Downsize DC Foundation, Downsize DC.org, Free Speech Defense & Education Fund, Free Speech Coalition, Western Journalism Center, The Lincoln Institute, Institute on the Constitution, Abraham Lincoln Foundation and Conservative Legal Defense & Education Fund. The 2014 NDAA was fast-tracked through the U.S. Senate, with no time for discussion or amendments, while most Americans were distracted by the scandal surrounding A&E’s troubles with “Duck Dynasty” star Phil Robertson. Eighty-five of 100 senators voted in favor of the new version of the NDAA, which had already been quietly passed by the House of Representatives. Hedges, a Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist, and others filed a lawsuit in 2012 against the Obama administration to challenge the legality of an earlier version of the NDAA. It’s Section 1021 of the 2012 NDAA, and its successors, that drew a lawsuit by Hedges, Daniel Ellsberg, Jennifer Bolen, Noam Chomsky, Alex O’Brien, Kai Warg All, Brigitta Jonsottir and the group U.S. Day of Rage. Many of the plaintiffs are authors or reporters who stated that the threat of indefinite detention by the U.S. military already had altered their activities. “It’s clearly unconstitutional,” Hedges says of the bill. “It is a huge and egregious assault against our democracy. It overturns over 200 years of law, which has kept the military out of domestic policing.” Hedges is a former foreign correspondent for the New York Times and was part of a team of reporters awarded a Pulitzer Prize in 2002 for the paper’s coverage of global terrorism. The friend-of-the-court brief warns the precedent “leaves American citizens vulnerable to arrest and detention, without the protection of the Bill of Rights, under either the plaintiff’s or the government’s theory of the case. “The judiciary must not await subsequent litigation to resolve this issue, as the nature of military detention is that American citizens then would have no adequate legal remedy,” the brief explains. Video mania: The instruction manual on how to restore America to what it once was: “Taking America Back” on DVD. This package also includes the “Tea Party at Sea” DVD. Section 1021 allows the detention of anyone, including American citizens, by the military, if the president considers that person to have helped with terror. It’s different from the Authorization for the Use of Military Force, which was adopted immediately after the Sept. 11 terror attacks, because while that law allows detention, there must be something linking them to the Sept. 11 attacks. “Section 1021 authorizes detention, potentially forever, and even rendition of American citizens to foreign nations,” the brief points out. “If this court refuses to hear the Hedges challenge, it will leave American citizens subject to unconstitutional military arrest and detention. “If this court does not grant the petition, there is no reason to believe the U.S. presidents would cease to assert ‘the right to place certain individuals [including American citizens] in military detention, without trial.’ There would continue to be no statutory constraint on an arrest being authorized by a military officer of unspecified rank. There would be no protection provided by the requirement of a grand jury indictment. There would be no requirement of an arrest arrant issued by an Article II judge supported by a sworn affidavit showing probable cause of the commission of a specific crime. Neither would there be any protection against use of compelled testimony, or against an violation of due process of law. There would be no civilian proceedings whatsoever against the person detained. Indeed, there is no requirement that the individual being detained has committed any federal crime, and military detentions could be used to circumvent the protections afforded American citizens by the treason clause of the U.S. Constitution.” It describes a scary scenario. “After the string of black Suburbans pulls away, it is difficult to believe that the military would provide relatives or lawyers with any information whatsoever as to where the person being detained was being held.” After all, it explains, Congress specifically expressed its desire for the detention provision to apply to American citizens even on American soil by rejecting multiple amendments that would have exempted them. And Obama, also, affirmed the detention authority, stating, “I want to clarify that my administration will not authorize the indefinite military detention without trial of American citizens … My administration will interpret Section 1021 in a manner that ensures that any detention it authorizes complies with the Constitution, the laws of war, and all other applicable law.” Simply stating that means it could be interpreted in a contrary manner. At the trial court level, U.S. District Judge Katherine B. Forrest issued a Memorandum Opinion and Order that struck the provision as unconstitutional. Multiple states have passed laws banning its enforcement inside those states. Herb Titus, a constitutional expert, previously told WND Forrest’s ruling underscored “the arrogance of the current regime, in that they will not answer questions that they ought to answer to a judge because they don’t think they have to.” The judge explained that the plaintiffs alleged paragraph 1021 is “constitutionally infirm, violating both their free speech and associational rights guaranteed by the 1st Amendment as well due process rights guaranteed by the 5th Amendment.” She noted the government “did not call any witnesses, submit any documentary evidence or file any declarations.” “It must be said that it would have been a rather simple matter for the government to have stated that as to these plaintiffs and the conduct as to which they would testify, that [paragraph] 1021 did not and would not apply, if indeed it did or would not,” she wrote. Instead, the administration only responded with, “I’m not authorized to make specific representations regarding specific people.” “The court’s attempt to avoid having to deal with the constitutional aspects of the challenge was by providing the government with prompt notice in the form of declarations and depositions of the … conduct in which plaintiffs are involved and which they claim places them in fear of military detention,” she wrote. “To put it bluntly, to eliminate these plaintiffs’ standing simply by representing that their conduct does not fall within the scope of 1021 would have been simple. The government chose not to do so – thereby ensuring standing and requiring this court to reach the merits of the instant motion. “Plaintiffs have stated a more than plausible claim that the statute inappropriately encroaches on their rights under the 1st Amendment,” she wrote. Experts have expressed concern that even a journalist who has interviewed a member of a terror group may be considered to have rendered aid to that group. The government appealed the trial judge’s ruling to the 2nd Circuit, which abruptly ruled that the plaintiffs had no right to challenge the law. Read more at http://www.wnd.com/2014/01/congress-grants-obama-free-rein-for-martial-law/#at3I7ODLPFt8OGGl.99 Article has embedded video link which is worth watching!


Below is a good graphic the illustrates where we are going, or maybe in reality, where we already are! Click on it to enlarge it for readability! I had to enlarge it into 3 pieces because it still was not readable!

police_state lgr                   Untitled      Untitled1      Untitled2

I think the time is now, to make your stand and have your voice heard!!!





The article below, is the most chilling information piece that I have read, recently!

We are, without any more doubts, DONE FOR!

This is the proverbial “last nail” in our coffin!

Obamacare Provision: “Forced” Home Inspections

Article posted at the link below:

August 14, 2013


“Clearly, any family may be visited by federally paid agents for almost any reason.”

According to an Obamacare provision millions of Americans will be targeted. The Health and Human Services’ website states that your family will be targeted if you fall under the “high-risk” categories below:

Families where mom is not yet 21.

Families where someone is a tobacco user.

Families where children have low student achievement, developmental delays, or disabilities.

Families with individuals who are serving or formerly served in the armed forces, including such families that have members of the armed forces who have had multiple deployments outside the United States.

There is no reference to Medicaid being the determinant for a family to be “eligible.”

In 2011, the HHS announced $224 million will be given to support evidence-based home visiting programs to “help parents and children.” Individuals from the state will implement these leveraging strategies to “enhance program sustainability.”

Constitutional attorney and author Kent Masterson Brown states,

“This is not a “voluntary” program. The eligible entity receiving the grant for performing the home visits is to identify the individuals to be visited and intervene so as to meet the improvement benchmarks.

A homeschooling family, for instance, may be subject to “intervention” in “school readiness” and “social-emotional developmental indicators.”

A farm family may be subject to “intervention” in order to “prevent child injuries.” The sky is the limit.

Although the Obama administration would claim the provision applies only to Medicaid families, the new statute, by its own definition, has no such limitation.

Intervention may be with any family for any reason.

It may also result in the child or children being required to go to certain schools or taking certain medications and vaccines and even having more limited – or no – interaction with parents.

The federal government will now set the standards for raising children and will enforce them by home visits.”

Part of the program will require massive data collecting of private information including all sources of income and the amount gathered from each source. A manual called Child Neglect: A Guide for Prevention, Assessment, and Intervention includes firearms as potential safety hazard  and will require inspectors to verify safety compliance and record each inspection into a database.

Last session South Carolina Rep. Bill Chumley introduced a bill, H.3101 that would nullify certain provisions of Obamacare. The bill would give the state attorney general the authority to authorize law enforcement to arrest federal agents for trespassing. It would make forced home inspections under Obamacare illegal in South Carolina. It passed in the House but died in the senate.

Kent Brown and Rep. Rick Quinn discuss “forced” home inspections under Obamacare in the video below.

home inv insp vid pic

To watch the video CLICK the link below:


Read more: http://freedomoutpost.com/2013/08/obamacare-provision-forced-home-inspections/#ixzz2c5Ttrfze

Read more at http://freedomoutpost.com/2013/08/obamacare-provision-forced-home-inspections/#ezsVzoy0oUbpPPjG.99


About Joshua Cook.  Joshua Cook lives in Travelers Rest SC. He received his BA from Southeastern University and MBA from North Greenville University.

View all posts by Joshua Cook → Read more: http://freedomoutpost.com/2013/08/obamacare-provision-forced-home-inspections/#ixzz2c6p60NEC

Read more at http://freedomoutpost.com/2013/08/obamacare-provision-forced-home-inspections/#P2zVUVRTeC0LbdWE.99


I don’t see The People rising up in outrage and throwing off the yokes of tyranny that have been placed on their shoulders, since 1913, but especially during the past five years!

We have no more freedoms,

We have no Constitution – because not the pres and not Congress, not the courts and definitely not the militarized police, abide by its edicts!

It has been relegated to an irrelevant, old, piece of paper that is not to be followed or upheld or defended!

If we don’t “Do An Egypt” here and now – our country is no more!













Exclusive: Lord Monckton explains what’ll happen when the crunch finally comes

Published: 7-30-2013

cmonckton_avatar  LORD MONCKTON

Christopher Monckton of Brenchley, high priest of climate skepticism, advised Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, wrote leaders for the Yorkshire Post, was editor of the Catholic paper The Universe, managing editor of the Telegraph Sunday Magazine, assistant editor of Today, and consulting editor of the Evening Standard. He invented the million-selling “Eternity Puzzles,” “Sudoku X” and a promising treatment for infections. See the Science & Public Policy Institute.


I make no apology for repeating my warning that, thanks to the dismal Obama administration, Uncle Sam is bankrupt. Serious financial commentators are now predicting riots in the streets and even, perhaps, outright economic collapse.

The U.S. dollar, the world’s reserve currency for almost half a century, is its reserve currency no more. Each dollar bill the administration prints is just as much a forgery as that bogus Hawaiian birth certificate.

Every two months, the administration prints or borrows more money than the combined annual profits of the 100 biggest publicly traded companies in America.

Every second, the U.S. government spends $64,000 it doesn’t have. The $64,000 Question is not whether but when the collapse will come. The crash of 2008 was a walk in the park. This is the big one. And the frankly communist outlook of the current administration means it is temperamentally disinclined to take any of the steps that are now essential to save America.

Trouble is, the GOP have little or nothing to say about this. For 10 successive suspicious weeks, U.S. federal debt has remained at just under $17 trillion, just under the debt ceiling set by your elected representatives in Congress.

Yeah, right. Dream on. The Treasury is fiddling the books. Fraudulently. According to my calculations, federal debt has risen not by zero but by $400 billion in those 70 days.

Here is just one of the ways the Treasury can get away with making $400 billion vanish. Under an act intended to allow officials to mint commemorative coins (not exactly a legitimate function of the Treasury), the Secretary Jack Lew can issue platinum coins of any denomination he wants.

To keep the debt apparently below the congressional limit even though it is rising at $40 billion a week, all he has to do is mint a half-ounce coin with a face value of $2 trillion and deposit it with the Fed.

Bingo! Not just 70 days’ squandering but a whole year’s socialist profligacy fully “paid for,” just like that. And Congress none the wiser.

I don’t know whether this is how Lew is cooking the books. I don’t know how he’s cooking them. But I do know that he’s cooking them. You don’t need to have a Ph.D. in macroeconomics to work that one out.

I am angry – and I’m not even a U.S. citizen. Every red-blooded American should be furious when in-your-face corruption as outrageous as this prevails at the highest level in the institution whose job is to account for your money honestly.

Today the U.S. has more government debt than any country in the history of the world. More debt than every country in the European Union – combined.

To minimize the interest on all that debt, the Fed has lowered its benchmark interest rate 10 times since August 2007, from 5.25 percent to somewhere between 0 and 0.25 percent. But it can’t go on doing that, because worldwide no one believes in the dollar. So interest rates are going to have to go up.

Porter Stansberry, an investment expert based in Baltimore, explains what will happen then: “What if the average real interest rate ends up being just 4 percent and we pay it off over 30 years, like a mortgage? We’ll spend $34.3 trillion just to repay what we owe right now. If the rate ends up being 6 percent, we’ll spend $43.1 trillion.”

The crunch will come when Uncle Sam’s creditors either completely stop accepting dollars in repayment or greatly discount the value of these new dollars.

The New York Post puts it this way: “The U.S. dollar is getting perilously close to losing its status as the world’s reserve currency. Should it cross the line, the 2008 financial crisis could look like a summer storm.” The Financial Times and the Wall Street Journal have said the same.

Sam Zell, America’s 60th richest man, says this: “My single biggest financial concern is the loss of the dollar as the reserve currency. I can’t imagine anything more disastrous to our country. I’m hoping against hope that it ain’t gonna happen, but you’re already seeing things in the markets that are suggesting that confidence in the dollar is waning. I think you could see a 25 percent reduction in the standard of living in this country if the U.S. dollar was no longer the world’s reserve currency. That’s how valuable it is.”

The Chinese, via the official Xinhua news agency, have said: “International supervision over the issue of U.S. dollars should be introduced and a new, stable and secured global reserve currency may also be an option to avert catastrophe caused by any single country.”

James Rickards, the author of “Currency Wars,” says this: “If the currency collapses, everything else goes with it: Stocks, bonds, commodities, derivatives and other investments are all priced in a nation’s currency. If you destroy the currency, you destroy all markets – and the nation.”

You heard it here first.

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Read more at http://www.wnd.com/2013/07/the-dollar-collapse-not-whether-but-when/#AjPjVyPfte1RuJYK.99

We The People Need To Stop The Train –

Before It TOTALLY Wrecks Our Country And Our Lives!



Two of the Best Explanations of the Federal Reserve System

(which is neither Federal nor reserved)


The Federal Reserve is how the elites will be able to rule us and make us part of their new world order! The schematic below explains how all the political and financial machinations  work and have worked for the past 100 years!

They will continue to work until we the people say enough!


The article, which is from the book, “The Beginning of The End”, was published in 2010, so the debt figures are grossly out if date, but you should know by now, that we are almost $17 TRILLION DOLLARS in debt and if the 2009 figures made the debt unpayable, you may as well forget about ever paying off the debt that exists now! Read these two explanations to understand what the yokes are that bind us down and the only way we will ever be able to become debt free is to close down the Federal Reserve, tear up our debt to them, which they caused, and give the money making power back to Congress, the way it was set up in the Constitution!

It Is Now Mathematically Impossible To Pay Off The U.S. National Debt

 By Michael Snyder, on February 4th, 2010


A lot of people are very upset about the rapidly increasing U.S. national debt these days and they are  demanding a solution. What they don’t realize is that there simply is not a solution under the current U.S. financial system. It is now mathematically impossible for the U.S. government to pay off the U.S. national debt. You see, the truth is that the U.S. government now owes more dollars than actually exist. If the U.S. government went out today and took every single penny from every single American bank, business and taxpayer, they still would not be able to pay off the national debt. And if they did that, obviously American society would stop functioning because nobody would have any money to buy or sell anything.

And the U.S. government would still be massively in debt.

So why doesn’t the U.S. government just fire up the printing presses and print a bunch of money to pay off the debt?

Well, for one very simple reason.

That is not the way our system works.

You see, for more dollars to enter the system, the U.S. government has to go into more debt.

The U.S. government does not issue U.S. currency – the Federal Reserve does.

The Federal Reserve is a private bank owned and operated for profit by a very powerful group of elite international bankers.

If you will pull a dollar bill out and take a look at it, you will notice that it says “Federal Reserve Note” at the top.

It belongs to the Federal Reserve.

The U.S. government cannot simply go out and create new money whenever it wants under our current system.

Instead, it must get it from the Federal Reserve.

So, when the U.S. government needs to borrow more money (which happens a lot these days) it goes over to the Federal Reserve and asks them for some more green pieces of paper called Federal Reserve Notes.

The Federal Reserve swaps these green pieces of paper for pink pieces of paper called U.S. Treasury bonds. The Federal Reserve either sells these U.S. Treasury bonds or they keep the bonds for themselves (which happens a lot these days).

So that is how the U.S. government gets more green pieces of paper called “U.S. dollars” to put into circulation. But by doing so, they get themselves into even more debt which they will owe even more interest on.

So every time the U.S. government does this, the national debt gets even bigger and the interest on that debt gets even bigger.

Are you starting to get the picture?

As you read this, the U.S. national debt is approximately 12 trillion dollars, although it is going up so rapidly that it is really hard to pin down an exact figure.

So how much money actually exists in the United States today?

Well, there are several ways to measure this.

The “M0” money supply is the total of all physical bills and currency, plus the money on hand in bank vaults and all of the deposits those banks have at reserve banks.  As of mid-2009, the Federal Reserve said that this amount was about 908 billion dollars.

The “M1” money supply includes all of the currency in the “M0” money supply, along with all of the money held in checking accounts and other checkable accounts at banks, as well as all money contained in travelers’ checks.  According to the Federal Reserve, this totaled approximately 1.7 trillion dollars in December 2009, but not all of this money actually “exists” as we will see in a moment.

The “M2” money supply includes everything in the “M1” money supply plus most other savings accounts, money market accounts, retail money market mutual funds, and small denomination time deposits (certificates of deposit of under $100,000).  According to the Federal Reserve, this totaled approximately 8.5 trillion dollars in December 2009, but once again, not all of this money actually “exists” as we will see in a moment.

The “M3” money supply includes everything in the “M2” money supply plus all other CDs (large time deposits and institutional money market mutual fund balances), deposits of eurodollars and repurchase agreements.  The Federal Reserve does not keep track of M3 anymore, but according to ShadowStats.com it is currently somewhere in the neighborhood of 14 trillion dollars.  But again, not all of this “money” actually “exists” either.

So why doesn’t it exist?

It is because our financial system is based on something called fractional reserve banking.

When you go over to your local bank and deposit $100, they do not keep your $100 in the bank.  Instead, they keep only a small fraction of your money there at the bank and they lend out the rest to someone else.  Then, if that person deposits the money that was just borrowed at the same bank, that bank can loan out most of that money once again.  In this way, the amount of “money” quickly gets multiplied.  But in reality, only $100 actually exists.  The system works because we do not all run down to the bank and demand all of our money at the same time.

According to the New York Federal Reserve Bank, fractional reserve banking can be explained this way….

If the reserve requirement is 10%, for example, a bank that receives a $100 deposit may lend out $90 of that deposit. If the borrower then writes a check to someone who deposits the $90, the bank receiving that deposit can lend out $81. As the process continues, the banking system can expand the initial deposit of $100 into a maximum of $1,000 of money($100+$90+81+$72.90+…=$1,000).”

So much of the “money” out there today is basically made up out of thin air.

In fact, most banks have no reserve requirements at all on savings deposits, CDs and certain kinds of money market accounts.  Primarily, reserve requirements apply only to “transactions deposits” – essentially checking accounts.

The truth is that banks are freer today to dramatically “multiply” the amounts deposited with them than ever before.  But all of this “multiplied” money is only on paper – it doesn’t actually exist.

The point is that the broadest measures of the money supply (M2 and M3) vastly overstate how much “real money” actually exists in the system.

So if the U.S. government went out today and demanded every single dollar from all banks, businesses and individuals in the United States it would not be able to collect 14 trillion dollars (M3) or even 8.5 trillion dollars (M2) because those amounts are based on fractional reserve banking.

So the bottom line is this….

#1) If all money owned by all American banks, businesses and individuals was gathered up today and sent to the U.S. government, there would not be enough to pay off the U.S. national debt.

#2) The only way to create more money is to go into even more debt which makes the problem even worse.

You see, this is what the whole Federal Reserve System was designed to do.  It was designed to slowly drain the massive wealth of the American people and transfer it to the elite international bankers.

It is a game that is designed so that the U.S. government cannot win.  As soon as they create more money by borrowing it, the U.S. government owes more than what was created because of interest.

If you owe more money than ever was created you can never pay it back.

That means perpetual debt for as long as the system exists.

It is a system designed to force the U.S. government into ever-increasing amounts of debt because there is no escape.

We could solve this problem by shutting down the Federal Reserve and restoring the power to issue U.S. currency to the U.S. Congress (which is what the U.S. Constitution calls for).  But the politicians in Washington D.C. are not about to do that.

So unless you are willing to fundamentally change the current system, you might as well quit complaining about the U.S. national debt because it is now mathematically impossible to pay it off.


It has been suggested that the same dollar can be used to pay off debt over and over – this is theoretically true as long as the dollar remains in the system.

For example, if the U.S. government gives China a dollar to pay off a debt, there is a good chance that the U.S. government will be able to acquire that dollar again and use it to pay off another debt.

However, this is not true when debt is retired with the Federal Reserve.  In that case, money is actually removed from the system.  In fact, because of the “money multiplier”, when debt is retired with the Federal Reserve it can remove ten times that amount of money (and actually more, but let’s not get too technical) from the system.

You see, fractional reserve banking works both ways.  When $100 is introduced into the system, it can theoretically create $1000 as the example in the article above demonstrates.  However, when that $100 is removed, it can have the opposite impact.

And considering the fact that the Federal Reserve “purchased” the vast majority of new U.S. government debt last year, we have got a real mess on our hands.

Even if a way could be figured out how to pay off all the debt we owe to foreign nations (such as China, Japan, etc.) it would still be mathematically impossible to pay off the debt that we owe to the Federal Reserve which is exploding so fast that it is hard to even keep track of.

Of course we could repudiate that debt and shut down the Federal Reserve, but very few in Washington D.C. have any interest in doing that.

It has also been suggested that instead of just using dollars to pay off the U.S. national debt, we could use the assets of the U.S. government to pay it off.

That is rather extreme, but let us consider that for a moment.

That total value of all physical assets in the United States, both publicly and privately owned, is somewhere in the neighborhood of 45 to 50 trillion dollars.  Of course the idea of the U.S. government “owning” every single asset of the American people is repugnant to our entire way of life, but let’s assume that for a moment.

According to the 2008 Financial Report of the United States Government, which is an official United States government report, the total liabilities of the United States government, including future social security and medicare payments that the U.S. government is already committed to pay out, now exceed 65 TRILLION dollars.  This amount is more than the entire GDP of the whole world.

In fact, there are other authors who have written that the actual figure for the future liabilities of the U.S. government should be much higher, but let’s be conservative and go with 65 trillion for now.

So, if the U.S. government took control of all physical assets in the United States and sold them off, it could not even make enough money to pay for everything that the U.S. government is already on the hook for.


If you have not read the 2008 Financial Report of the United States Government, you really should.  Actually the 2009 report should be available very soon if it isn’t already.  If anyone knows if it is available, please let us know.

The truth is that the U.S. government is in much bigger financial trouble than we have been led to believe.

For example, according to the report (which remember is an official U.S. government report) the real U.S. budget deficit for 2008 was not 455 billion dollars.  It was actually 5.1 trillion dollars.

So why the difference?

The CBO’s 455 billion figure is based on cash accounting, while the 5.1 trillion figure in the 2008 Financial Report of the United States Government is based on GAAP accounting. GAAP accounting is what is used by all the major firms on Wall Street and it is regarded as a much more accurate reflection of financial reality.

So needless to say, the United States is in a financial mess of unprecedented magnitude.

So what should we do?  Does anyone have any suggestions?

***UPDATE 2***

We have received a lot of great comments on this article.  Trying to understand the U.S. financial system (even after studying it for years) can be very difficult at times.  In fact, it can almost seem like playing 3 dimensional chess.

Several readers have correctly pointed out that when the U.S. money supply is expanded by the Federal Reserve, the interest that is to be paid on that new debt is not created.

So where does the money to pay that interest come from?  Well, eventually the money supply has to be expanded some more.  But that creates even more debt.

That brings us to the next point.

Several readers have insisted that the Federal Reserve is not privately owned and that since it returns “most” of the profits it makes to the U.S. government that we should not be concerned about the debt owed to it.

The truth is that what you have with the Federal Reserve is layers of ownership.  The following was originally posted on the Federal Reserve’s website….

“The twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks, which were established by Congress as the operating arms of the nation’s central banking system, are organized much like private corporations – possibly leading to some confusion about “ownership.” For example, the Reserve Banks issue shares of stock to member banks. However, owning Reserve Bank stock is quite different from owning stock in a private company. The Reserve Banks are not operated for profit, and ownership of a certain amount of stock is, by law, a condition of membership in the System. The stock may not be sold, traded, or pledged as security for a loan; dividends are, by law, 6 percent per year.”

So Federal Reserve “stock” is owned by member banks.  So who owns the member banks?  Well, when you sift through additional layers of ownership, you will ultimately find that people like the Rothschilds, the Rockefellers and the Queen of England have very large ownership interests in the big banks.  But there are so many layers of ownership that they are able to disguise themselves well.

You see, these people are not stupid.  They did not become the richest people in the world by being morons.  It was the banking elite of the world who designed the Federal Reserve and it is the banking elite of the world who benefit the most from the Federal Reserve today.  In the article above when we described the Federal Reserve as “a private bank owned and operated for profit by a very powerful group of elite international bankers” we may have been oversimplifying things a bit, but it is the essence of what is going on.

In an excellent article that she did on the Federal Reserve, Ellen Brown described a number of the ways that the Federal Reserve makes money for those who own it….

The interest on bonds acquired with its newly-issued Federal Reserve Notes pays the Fed’s operating expenses plus a guaranteed 6% return to its banker shareholders. A mere 6% a year may not be considered a profit in the world of Wall Street high finance, but most businesses that manage to cover all their expenses and give their shareholders a guaranteed 6% return are considered “for profit” corporations.

In addition to this guaranteed 6%, the banks will now be getting interest from the taxpayers on their “reserves.” The basic reserve requirement set by the Federal Reserve is 10%. The website of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York explains that as money is redeposited and relent throughout the banking system, this 10% held in “reserve” can be fanned into ten times that sum in loans; that is, $10,000 in reserves becomes $100,000 in loans. Federal Reserve Statistical Release H.8 puts the total “loans and leases in bank credit” as of September 24, 2008 at $7,049 billion. Ten percent of that is $700 billion. That means we the taxpayers will be paying interest to the banks on at least $700 billion annually – this so that the banks can retain the reserves to accumulate interest on ten times that sum in loans.

The banks earn these returns from the taxpayers for the privilege of having the banks’ interests protected by an all-powerful independent private central bank, even when those interests may be opposed to the taxpayers’ — for example, when the banks use their special status as private money creators to fund speculative derivative schemes that threaten to collapse the U.S. economy. Among other special benefits, banks and other financial institutions (but not other corporations) can borrow at the low Fed funds rate of about 2%. They can then turn around and put this money into 30-year Treasury bonds at 4.5%, earning an immediate 2.5% from the taxpayers, just by virtue of their position as favored banks. A long list of banks (but not other corporations) is also now protected from the short selling that can crash the price of other stocks.

The reality is that there are a lot of ways that the Federal Reserve is a money-making tool.  Yes, they do return “some” of their profits to the U.S. government each year.  But the Federal Reserve is NOT a government agency and it DOES make profits.

So just how much money is made over there?  The truth is that we have to rely on what the Federal Reserve tells us, because they have never been subjected to a comprehensive audit by the U.S. government.


Right now there is legislation going through Congress that would change that, and the Federal Reserve is fighting it tooth and nail.  They are warning that such an audit could cause a financial disaster.

What are they so afraid of?

Are they afraid that we might get to peek inside and see what they have been up to all these years?

If you are a history buff, then you probably know that debates about a “central bank” go all the way back to the Founding Fathers.

The European banking elite have always been determined to control our currency, and that is exactly what is happening today.

Ever since the Federal Reserve was created, there have been members of the U.S. Congress that have been trying to warn the American people about the insidious nature of this institution.

Just check out what the Honorable Louis McFadden, Chairman of the House Banking and Currency Committee had to say all the way back in the 1930s….

“Some people think that the Federal Reserve Banks are United States Government institutions. They are private monopolies which prey upon the people of these United States for the benefit of themselves and their foreign customers; foreign and domestic speculators and swindlers; and rich and predatory money lenders.”

The Federal Reserve is not the solution and it never has been.

The Federal Reserve is the problem.

Any thoughts?

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books & tape

The time is near when we will have to take a stand or

forever more live as slaves to financial & political tyranny! 



Once this is operative and functioning, you can kiss your privacy goodbye!

The gov is going to collecting everything! Every cell phone call, every email, every post on line!

Probably every picture taken with the traffic control cameras too! On everybody and for ever!!!



The NSA Is Building the Country’s Biggest Spy Center

(Watch What You Say)


Photo: Name Withheld; Digital Manipulation: Jesse Lenz

The spring air in the small, sand-dusted town has a soft haze to it, and clumps of green-gray sagebrush rustle in the breeze. Bluffdale sits in a bowl-shaped valley in the shadow of Utah’s Wasatch Range to the east and the Oquirrh Mountains to the west. It’s the heart of Mormon country, where religious pioneers first arrived more than 160 years ago. They came to escape the rest of the world, to understand the mysterious words sent down from their god as revealed on buried golden plates, and to practice what has become known as “the principle,” marriage to multiple wives.


Today Bluffdale is home to one of the nation’s largest sects of polygamists, the Apostolic United Brethren, with upwards of 9,000 members. The brethren’s complex includes a chapel, a school, a sports field, and an archive. Membership has doubled since 1978—and the number of plural marriages has tripled—so the sect has recently been looking for ways to purchase more land and expand throughout the town.

But new pioneers have quietly begun moving into the area, secretive outsiders who say little and keep to themselves. Like the pious polygamists, they are focused on deciphering cryptic messages that only they have the power to understand. Just off Beef Hollow Road, less than a mile from brethren headquarters, thousands of hard-hatted construction workers in sweat-soaked T-shirts are laying the groundwork for the newcomers’ own temple and archive, a massive complex so large that it necessitated expanding the town’s boundaries. Once built, it will be more than five times the size of the US Capitol.

Rather than Bibles, prophets, and worshippers, this temple will be filled with servers, computer intelligence experts, and armed guards. And instead of listening for words flowing down from heaven, these newcomers will be secretly capturing, storing, and analyzing vast quantities of words and images hurtling through the world’s telecommunications networks. In the little town of Bluffdale, Big Love and Big Brother have become uneasy neighbors.

The NSA has become the largest, most covert, and potentially most intrusive intelligence agency ever.

Under construction by contractors with top-secret clearances, the blandly named Utah Data Center is being built for the National Security Agency. A project of immense secrecy, it is the final piece in a complex puzzle assembled over the past decade. Its purpose: to intercept, decipher, analyze, and store vast swaths of the world’s communications as they zap down from satellites and zip through the underground and undersea cables of international, foreign, and domestic networks. The heavily fortified $2 billion center should be up and running in September 2013. Flowing through its servers and routers and stored in near-bottomless databases will be all forms of communication, including the complete contents of private emails, cell phone calls, and Google searches, as well as all sorts of personal data trails—parking receipts, travel itineraries, bookstore purchases, and other digital “pocket litter.” It is, in some measure, the realization of the “total information awareness” program created during the first term of the Bush administration—an effort that was killed by Congress in 2003 after it caused an outcry over its potential for invading Americans’ privacy.

But “this is more than just a data center,” says one senior intelligence official who until recently was involved with the program. The mammoth Bluffdale center will have another important and far more secret role that until now has gone unrevealed. It is also critical, he says, for breaking codes. And code-breaking is crucial, because much of the data that the center will handle—financial information, stock transactions, business deals, foreign military and diplomatic secrets, legal documents, confidential personal communications—will be heavily encrypted. According to another top official also involved with the program, the NSA made an enormous breakthrough several years ago in its ability to cryptanalyze, or break, unfathomably complex encryption systems employed by not only governments around the world but also many average computer users in the US. The upshot, according to this official: “Everybody’s a target; everybody with communication is a target.”

For the NSA, overflowing with tens of billions of dollars in post-9/11 budget awards, the cryptanalysis breakthrough came at a time of explosive growth, in size as well as in power. Established as an arm of the Department of Defense following Pearl Harbor, with the primary purpose of preventing another surprise assault, the NSA suffered a series of humiliations in the post-Cold War years. Caught offguard by an escalating series of terrorist attacks—the first World Trade Center bombing, the blowing up of US embassies in East Africa, the attack on the USS Cole in Yemen, and finally the devastation of 9/11—some began questioning the agency’s very reason for being. In response, the NSA has quietly been reborn. And while there is little indication that its actual effectiveness has improved—after all, despite numerous pieces of evidence and intelligence-gathering opportunities, it missed the near-disastrous attempted attacks by the underwear bomber on a flight to Detroit in 2009 and by the car bomber in Times Square in 2010—there is no doubt that it has transformed itself into the largest, most covert, and potentially most intrusive intelligence agency ever created.

In the process—and for the first time since Watergate and the other scandals of the Nixon administration—the NSA has turned its surveillance apparatus on the US and its citizens. It has established listening posts throughout the nation to collect and sift through billions of email messages and phone calls, whether they originate within the country or overseas. It has created a supercomputer of almost unimaginable speed to look for patterns and unscramble codes. Finally, the agency has begun building a place to store all the trillions of words and thoughts and whispers captured in its electronic net. And, of course, it’s all being done in secret. To those on the inside, the old adage that NSA stands for Never Say Anything applies more than ever.


When construction is completed in 2013, the heavily fortified $2 billion facility in Bluffdale will encompass 1 million square feet.


1 Visitor control center

A $9.7 million facility for ensuring that only cleared personnel gain access.

2 Administration

Designated space for technical support and administrative personnel.

3 Data halls

Four 25,000-square-foot facilities house rows and rows of servers.

4 Backup generators and fuel tanks

Can power the center for at least three days.

5 Water storage and pumping

Able to pump 1.7 million gallons of liquid per day.

6 Chiller plant

About 60,000 tons of cooling equipment to keep servers from overheating.

7 Power substation

An electrical substation to meet the center’s estimated 65-megawatt demand.

8 Security

Video surveillance, intrusion detection, and other protection will cost more than $10 million.

Source: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Conceptual Site plan

A swath of freezing fog blanketed Salt Lake City on the morning of January 6, 2011, mixing with a weeklong coating of heavy gray smog. Red air alerts, warning people to stay indoors unless absolutely necessary, had become almost daily occurrences, and the temperature was in the bone-chilling twenties. “What I smell and taste is like coal smoke,” complained one local blogger that day. At the city’s international airport, many inbound flights were delayed or diverted while outbound regional jets were grounded. But among those making it through the icy mist was a figure whose gray suit and tie made him almost disappear into the background. He was tall and thin, with the physique of an aging basketball player and dark caterpillar eyebrows beneath a shock of matching hair. Accompanied by a retinue of bodyguards, the man was NSA deputy director Chris Inglis, the agency’s highest-ranking civilian and the person who ran its worldwide day-to-day operations.

A short time later, Inglis arrived in Bluffdale at the site of the future data center, a flat, unpaved runway on a little-used part of Camp Williams, a National Guard training site. There, in a white tent set up for the occasion, Inglis joined Harvey Davis, the agency’s associate director for installations and logistics, and Utah senator Orrin Hatch, along with a few generals and politicians in a surreal ceremony. Standing in an odd wooden sandbox and holding gold-painted shovels, they made awkward jabs at the sand and thus officially broke ground on what the local media had simply dubbed “the spy center.” Hoping for some details on what was about to be built, reporters turned to one of the invited guests, Lane Beattie of the Salt Lake Chamber of Commerce. Did he have any idea of the purpose behind the new facility in his backyard? “Absolutely not,” he said with a self-conscious half laugh. “Nor do I want them spying on me.”

For his part, Inglis simply engaged in a bit of double-talk, emphasizing the least threatening aspect of the center: “It’s a state-of-the-art facility designed to support the intelligence community in its mission to, in turn, enable and protect the nation’s cybersecurity.” While cybersecurity will certainly be among the areas focused on in Bluffdale, what is collected, how it’s collected, and what is done with the material are far more important issues. Battling hackers makes for a nice cover—it’s easy to explain, and who could be against it? Then the reporters turned to Hatch, who proudly described the center as “a great tribute to Utah,” then added, “I can’t tell you a lot about what they’re going to be doing, because it’s highly classified.”

And then there was this anomaly: Although this was supposedly the official ground-breaking for the nation’s largest and most expensive cybersecurity project, no one from the Department of Homeland Security, the agency responsible for protecting civilian networks from cyberattack, spoke from the lectern. In fact, the official who’d originally introduced the data center, at a press conference in Salt Lake City in October 2009, had nothing to do with cybersecurity. It was Glenn A. Gaffney, deputy director of national intelligence for collection, a man who had spent almost his entire career at the CIA. As head of collection for the intelligence community, he managed the country’s human and electronic spies.

Within days, the tent and sandbox and gold shovels would be gone and Inglis and the generals would be replaced by some 10,000 construction workers. “We’ve been asked not to talk about the project,” Rob Moore, president of Big-D Construction, one of the three major contractors working on the project, told a local reporter. The plans for the center show an extensive security system: an elaborate $10 million antiterrorism protection program, including a fence designed to stop a 15,000-pound vehicle traveling 50 miles per hour, closed-circuit cameras, a biometric identification system, a vehicle inspection facility, and a visitor-control center.

Inside, the facility will consist of four 25,000-square-foot halls filled with servers, complete with raised floor space for cables and storage. In addition, there will be more than 900,000 square feet for technical support and administration. The entire site will be self-sustaining, with fuel tanks large enough to power the backup generators for three days in an emergency, water storage with the capability of pumping 1.7 million gallons of liquid per day, as well as a sewage system and massive air-conditioning system to keep all those servers cool. Electricity will come from the center’s own substation built by Rocky Mountain Power to satisfy the 65-megawatt power demand. Such a mammoth amount of energy comes with a mammoth price tag—about $40 million a year, according to one estimate.

Given the facility’s scale and the fact that a terabyte of data can now be stored on a flash drive the size of a man’s pinky, the potential amount of information that could be housed in Bluffdale is truly staggering. But so is the exponential growth in the amount of intelligence data being produced every day by the eavesdropping sensors of the NSA and other intelligence agencies. As a result of this “expanding array of theater airborne and other sensor networks,” as a 2007 Department of Defense report puts it, the Pentagon is attempting to expand its worldwide communications network, known as the Global Information Grid, to handle yottabytes (1024 bytes) of data. (A yottabyte is a septillion bytes—so large that no one has yet coined a term for the next higher magnitude.)

It needs that capacity because, according to a recent report by Cisco, global Internet traffic will quadruple from 2010 to 2015, reaching 966 exabytes per year. (A million exabytes equal a yottabyte.) In terms of scale, Eric Schmidt, Google’s former CEO, once estimated that the total of all human knowledge created from the dawn of man to 2003 totaled 5 exabytes. And the data flow shows no sign of slowing. In 2011 more than 2 billion of the world’s 6.9 billion people were connected to the Internet. By 2015, market research firm IDC estimates, there will be 2.7 billion users. Thus, the NSA’s need for a 1-million-square-foot data storehouse. Should the agency ever fill the Utah center with a yottabyte of information, it would be equal to about 500 quintillion (500,000,000,000,000,000,000) pages of text.

The data stored in Bluffdale will naturally go far beyond the world’s billions of public web pages. The NSA is more interested in the so-called invisible web, also known as the deep web or deepnet—data beyond the reach of the public. This includes password-protected data, US and foreign government communications, and noncommercial file-sharing between trusted peers. “The deep web contains government reports, databases, and other sources of information of high value to DOD and the intelligence community,” according to a 2010 Defense Science Board report. “Alternative tools are needed to find and index data in the deep web … Stealing the classified secrets of a potential adversary is where the [intelligence] community is most comfortable.” With its new Utah Data Center, the NSA will at last have the technical capability to store, and rummage through, all those stolen secrets. The question, of course, is how the agency defines who is, and who is not, “a potential adversary.”


Once it’s operational, the Utah Data Center will become, in effect, the NSA’s cloud. The center will be fed data collected by the agency’s eavesdropping satellites, overseas listening posts, and secret monitoring rooms in telecom facilities throughout the US. All that data will then be accessible to the NSA’s code breakers, data-miners, China analysts, counterterrorism specialists, and others working at its Fort Meade headquarters and around the world. Here’s how the data center appears to fit into the NSA’s global puzzle.—J.B.


1 Geostationary satellites

Four satellites positioned around the globe monitor frequencies carrying everything from walkie-talkies and cell phones in Libya to radar systems in North Korea. Onboard software acts as the first filter in the collection process, targeting only key regions, countries, cities, and phone numbers or email.

2 Aerospace Data Facility, Buckley Air Force Base, Colorado

Intelligence collected from the geostationary satellites, as well as signals from other spacecraft and overseas listening posts, is relayed to this facility outside Denver. About 850 NSA employees track the satellites, transmit target information, and download the intelligence haul.

3 NSA Georgia, Fort Gordon, Augusta, Georgia

Focuses on intercepts from Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa. Codenamed Sweet Tea, the facility has been massively expanded and now consists of a 604,000-square-foot operations building for up to 4,000 intercept operators, analysts, and other specialists.

4 NSA Texas, Lackland Air Force Base, San Antonio

Focuses on intercepts from Latin America and, since 9/11, the Middle East and Europe. Some 2,000 workers staff the operation. The NSA recently completed a $100 million renovation on a mega-data center here—a backup storage facility for the Utah Data Center.

5 NSA Hawaii, Oahu

Focuses on intercepts from Asia. Built to house an aircraft assembly plant during World War II, the 250,000-square-foot bunker is nicknamed the Hole. Like the other NSA operations centers, it has since been expanded: Its 2,700 employees now do their work aboveground from a new 234,000-square-foot facility.

6 Domestic listening posts

The NSA has long been free to eavesdrop on international satellite communications. But after 9/11, it installed taps in US telecom “switches,” gaining access to domestic traffic. An ex-NSA official says there are 10 to 20 such installations.

7 Overseas listening posts

According to a knowledgeable intelligence source, the NSA has installed taps on at least a dozen of the major overseas communications links, each capable of eavesdropping on information passing by at a high data rate.

8 Utah Data Center, Bluffdale, Utah

At a million square feet, this $2 billion digital storage facility outside Salt Lake City will be the centerpiece of the NSA’s cloud-based data strategy and essential in its plans for decrypting previously uncrackable documents.

9 Multiprogram Research Facility, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

Some 300 scientists and computer engineers with top security clearance toil away here, building the world’s fastest supercomputers and working on cryptanalytic applications and other secret projects.

10 NSA headquarters, Fort Meade, Maryland

Analysts here will access material stored at Bluffdale to prepare reports and recommendations that are sent to policymakers. To handle the increased data load, the NSA is also building an $896 million supercomputer center here.

Before yottabytes of data from the deep web and elsewhere can begin piling up inside the servers of the NSA’s new center, they must be collected. To better accomplish that, the agency has undergone the largest building boom in its history, including installing secret electronic monitoring rooms in major US telecom facilities. Controlled by the NSA, these highly secured spaces are where the agency taps into the US communications networks, a practice that came to light during the Bush years but was never acknowledged by the agency. The broad outlines of the so-called warrantless-wiretapping program have long been exposed—how the NSA secretly and illegally bypassed the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court, which was supposed to oversee and authorize highly targeted domestic eavesdropping; how the program allowed wholesale monitoring of millions of American phone calls and email. In the wake of the program’s exposure, Congress passed the FISA Amendments Act of 2008, which largely made the practices legal. Telecoms that had agreed to participate in the illegal activity were granted immunity from prosecution and lawsuits. What wasn’t revealed until now, however, was the enormity of this ongoing domestic spying program.

For the first time, a former NSA official has gone on the record to describe the program, codenamed Stellar Wind, in detail. William Binney was a senior NSA crypto-mathematician largely responsible for automating the agency’s worldwide eavesdropping network. A tall man with strands of black hair across the front of his scalp and dark, determined eyes behind thick-rimmed glasses, the 68-year-old spent nearly four decades breaking codes and finding new ways to channel billions of private phone calls and email messages from around the world into the NSA’s bulging databases. As chief and one of the two cofounders of the agency’s Signals Intelligence Automation Research Center, Binney and his team designed much of the infrastructure that’s still likely used to intercept international and foreign communications.

He explains that the agency could have installed its tapping gear at the nation’s cable landing stations—the more than two dozen sites on the periphery of the US where fiber-optic cables come ashore. If it had taken that route, the NSA would have been able to limit its eavesdropping to just international communications, which at the time was all that was allowed under US law. Instead it chose to put the wiretapping rooms at key junction points throughout the country—large, windowless buildings known as switches—thus gaining access to not just international communications but also to most of the domestic traffic flowing through the US. The network of intercept stations goes far beyond the single room in an AT&T building in San Francisco exposed by a whistle-blower in 2006. “I think there’s 10 to 20 of them,” Binney says. “That’s not just San Francisco; they have them in the middle of the country and also on the East Coast.”

The eavesdropping on Americans doesn’t stop at the telecom switches. To capture satellite communications in and out of the US, the agency also monitors AT&T’s powerful earth stations, satellite receivers in locations that include Roaring Creek and Salt Creek. Tucked away on a back road in rural Catawissa, Pennsylvania, Roaring Creek’s three 105-foot dishes handle much of the country’s communications to and from Europe and the Middle East. And on an isolated stretch of land in remote Arbuckle, California, three similar dishes at the company’s Salt Creek station service the Pacific Rim and Asia.

The former NSA official held his thumb and forefinger close together: “We are that far from a turnkey totalitarian state.”

Binney left the NSA in late 2001, shortly after the agency launched its warrantless-wiretapping program. “They violated the Constitution setting it up,” he says bluntly. “But they didn’t care. They were going to do it anyway, and they were going to crucify anyone who stood in the way. When they started violating the Constitution, I couldn’t stay.” Binney says Stellar Wind was far larger than has been publicly disclosed and included not just eavesdropping on domestic phone calls but the inspection of domestic email. At the outset the program recorded 320 million calls a day, he says, which represented about 73 to 80 percent of the total volume of the agency’s worldwide intercepts. The haul only grew from there. According to Binney—who has maintained close contact with agency employees until a few years ago—the taps in the secret rooms dotting the country are actually powered by highly sophisticated software programs that conduct “deep packet inspection,” examining Internet traffic as it passes through the 10-gigabit-per-second cables at the speed of light.

The software, created by a company called Narus that’s now part of Boeing, is controlled remotely from NSA headquarters at Fort Meade in Maryland and searches US sources for target addresses, locations, countries, and phone numbers, as well as watch-listed names, keywords, and phrases in email. Any communication that arouses suspicion, especially those to or from the million or so people on agency watch lists, are automatically copied or recorded and then transmitted to the NSA.

The scope of surveillance expands from there, Binney says. Once a name is entered into the Narus database, all phone calls and other communications to and from that person are automatically routed to the NSA’s recorders. “Anybody you want, route to a recorder,” Binney says. “If your number’s in there? Routed and gets recorded.” He adds, “The Narus device allows you to take it all.” And when Bluffdale is completed, whatever is collected will be routed there for storage and analysis.

According to Binney, one of the deepest secrets of the Stellar Wind program—again, never confirmed until now—was that the NSA gained warrantless access to AT&T’s vast trove of domestic and international billing records, detailed information about who called whom in the US and around the world. As of 2007, AT&T had more than 2.8 trillion records housed in a database at its Florham Park, New Jersey, complex.

Verizon was also part of the program, Binney says, and that greatly expanded the volume of calls subject to the agency’s domestic eavesdropping. “That multiplies the call rate by at least a factor of five,” he says. “So you’re over a billion and a half calls a day.” (Spokespeople for Verizon and AT&T said their companies would not comment on matters of national security.)

After he left the NSA, Binney suggested a system for monitoring people’s communications according to how closely they are connected to an initial target. The further away from the target—say you’re just an acquaintance of a friend of the target—the less the surveillance. But the agency rejected the idea, and, given the massive new storage facility in Utah, Binney suspects that it now simply collects everything. “The whole idea was, how do you manage 20 terabytes of intercept a minute?” he says. “The way we proposed was to distinguish between things you want and things you don’t want.” Instead, he adds, “they’re storing everything they gather.” And the agency is gathering as much as it can.

Once the communications are intercepted and stored, the data-mining begins. “You can watch everybody all the time with data- mining,” Binney says. Everything a person does becomes charted on a graph, “financial transactions or travel or anything,” he says. Thus, as data like bookstore receipts, bank statements, and commuter toll records flow in, the NSA is able to paint a more and more detailed picture of someone’s life.

The NSA also has the ability to eavesdrop on phone calls directly and in real time. According to Adrienne J. Kinne, who worked both before and after 9/11 as a voice interceptor at the NSA facility in Georgia, in the wake of the World Trade Center attacks “basically all rules were thrown out the window, and they would use any excuse to justify a waiver to spy on Americans.” Even journalists calling home from overseas were included. “A lot of time you could tell they were calling their families,” she says, “incredibly intimate, personal conversations.” Kinne found the act of eavesdropping on innocent fellow citizens personally distressing. “It’s almost like going through and finding somebody’s diary,” she says.

In secret listening rooms nationwide, NSA software examines every email, phone call, and tweet as they zip by.

But there is, of course, reason for anyone to be distressed about the practice. Once the door is open for the government to spy on US citizens, there are often great temptations to abuse that power for political purposes, as when Richard Nixon eavesdropped on his political enemies during Watergate and ordered the NSA to spy on antiwar protesters. Those and other abuses prompted Congress to enact prohibitions in the mid-1970s against domestic spying.

Before he gave up and left the NSA, Binney tried to persuade officials to create a more targeted system that could be authorized by a court. At the time, the agency had 72 hours to obtain a legal warrant, and Binney devised a method to computerize the system. “I had proposed that we automate the process of requesting a warrant and automate approval so we could manage a couple of million intercepts a day, rather than subvert the whole process.” But such a system would have required close coordination with the courts, and NSA officials weren’t interested in that, Binney says. Instead they continued to haul in data on a grand scale. Asked how many communications—”transactions,” in NSA’s lingo—the agency has intercepted since 9/11, Binney estimates the number at “between 15 and 20 trillion, the aggregate over 11 years.”

When Barack Obama took office, Binney hoped the new administration might be open to reforming the program to address his constitutional concerns. He and another former senior NSA analyst, J. Kirk Wiebe, tried to bring the idea of an automated warrant-approval system to the attention of the Department of Justice’s inspector general. They were given the brush-off. “They said, oh, OK, we can’t comment,” Binney says.

Sitting in a restaurant not far from NSA headquarters, the place where he spent nearly 40 years of his life, Binney held his thumb and forefinger close together. “We are, like, that far from a turnkey totalitarian state,” he says.

There is still one technology preventing untrammeled government access to private digital data: strong encryption. Anyone—from terrorists and weapons dealers to corporations, financial institutions, and ordinary email senders—can use it to seal their messages, plans, photos, and documents in hardened data shells. For years, one of the hardest shells has been the Advanced Encryption Standard, one of several algorithms used by much of the world to encrypt data. Available in three different strengths—128 bits, 192 bits, and 256 bits—it’s incorporated in most commercial email programs and web browsers and is considered so strong that the NSA has even approved its use for top-secret US government communications. Most experts say that a so-called brute-force computer attack on the algorithm—trying one combination after another to unlock the encryption—would likely take longer than the age of the universe. For a 128-bit cipher, the number of trial-and-error attempts would be 340 undecillion (1036).

Breaking into those complex mathematical shells like the AES is one of the key reasons for the construction going on in Bluffdale. That kind of cryptanalysis requires two major ingredients: super-fast computers to conduct brute-force attacks on encrypted messages and a massive number of those messages for the computers to analyze. The more messages from a given target, the more likely it is for the computers to detect telltale patterns, and Bluffdale will be able to hold a great many messages. “We questioned it one time,” says another source, a senior intelligence manager who was also involved with the planning. “Why were we building this NSA facility? And, boy, they rolled out all the old guys—the crypto guys.” According to the official, these experts told then-director of national intelligence Dennis Blair, “You’ve got to build this thing because we just don’t have the capability of doing the code-breaking.” It was a candid admission. In the long war between the code breakers and the code makers—the tens of thousands of cryptographers in the worldwide computer security industry—the code breakers were admitting defeat.

So the agency had one major ingredient—a massive data storage facility—under way. Meanwhile, across the country in Tennessee, the government was working in utmost secrecy on the other vital element: the most powerful computer the world has ever known.

The plan was launched in 2004 as a modern-day Manhattan Project. Dubbed the High Productivity Computing Systems program, its goal was to advance computer speed a thousandfold, creating a machine that could execute a quadrillion (1015) operations a second, known as a petaflop—the computer equivalent of breaking the land speed record. And as with the Manhattan Project, the venue chosen for the supercomputing program was the town of Oak Ridge in eastern Tennessee, a rural area where sharp ridges give way to low, scattered hills, and the southwestward-flowing Clinch River bends sharply to the southeast. About 25 miles from Knoxville, it is the “secret city” where uranium- 235 was extracted for the first atomic bomb. A sign near the exit read: what you see here, what you do here, what you hear here, when you leave here, let it stay here. Today, not far from where that sign stood, Oak Ridge is home to the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and it’s engaged in a new secret war. But this time, instead of a bomb of almost unimaginable power, the weapon is a computer of almost unimaginable speed.

In 2004, as part of the supercomputing program, the Department of Energy established its Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility for multiple agencies to join forces on the project. But in reality there would be two tracks, one unclassified, in which all of the scientific work would be public, and another top-secret, in which the NSA could pursue its own computer covertly. “For our purposes, they had to create a separate facility,” says a former senior NSA computer expert who worked on the project and is still associated with the agency. (He is one of three sources who described the program.) It was an expensive undertaking, but one the NSA was desperate to launch.

Known as the Multiprogram Research Facility, or Building 5300, the $41 million, five-story, 214,000-square-foot structure was built on a plot of land on the lab’s East Campus and completed in 2006. Behind the brick walls and green-tinted windows, 318 scientists, computer engineers, and other staff work in secret on the cryptanalytic applications of high-speed computing and other classified projects. The supercomputer center was named in honor of George R. Cotter, the NSA’s now-retired chief scientist and head of its information technology program. Not that you’d know it. “There’s no sign on the door,” says the ex-NSA computer expert.

At the DOE’s unclassified center at Oak Ridge, work progressed at a furious pace, although it was a one-way street when it came to cooperation with the closemouthed people in Building 5300. Nevertheless, the unclassified team had its Cray XT4 supercomputer upgraded to a warehouse-sized XT5. Named Jaguar for its speed, it clocked in at 1.75 petaflops, officially becoming the world’s fastest computer in 2009.

Meanwhile, over in Building 5300, the NSA succeeded in building an even faster supercomputer. “They made a big breakthrough,” says another former senior intelligence official, who helped oversee the program. The NSA’s machine was likely similar to the unclassified Jaguar, but it was much faster out of the gate, modified specifically for cryptanalysis and targeted against one or more specific algorithms, like the AES. In other words, they were moving from the research and development phase to actually attacking extremely difficult encryption systems. The code-breaking effort was up and running.

The breakthrough was enormous, says the former official, and soon afterward the agency pulled the shade down tight on the project, even within the intelligence community and Congress. “Only the chairman and vice chairman and the two staff directors of each intelligence committee were told about it,” he says. The reason? “They were thinking that this computing breakthrough was going to give them the ability to crack current public encryption.”

In addition to giving the NSA access to a tremendous amount of Americans’ personal data, such an advance would also open a window on a trove of foreign secrets. While today most sensitive communications use the strongest encryption, much of the older data stored by the NSA, including a great deal of what will be transferred to Bluffdale once the center is complete, is encrypted with more vulnerable ciphers. “Remember,” says the former intelligence official, “a lot of foreign government stuff we’ve never been able to break is 128 or less. Break all that and you’ll find out a lot more of what you didn’t know—stuff we’ve already stored—so there’s an enormous amount of information still in there.”

The NSA believes it’s on the verge of breaking a key encryption algorithm—opening up hoards of data.

That, he notes, is where the value of Bluffdale, and its mountains of long-stored data, will come in. What can’t be broken today may be broken tomorrow. “Then you can see what they were saying in the past,” he says. “By extrapolating the way they did business, it gives us an indication of how they may do things now.” The danger, the former official says, is that it’s not only foreign government information that is locked in weaker algorithms, it’s also a great deal of personal domestic communications, such as Americans’ email intercepted by the NSA in the past decade.

But first the supercomputer must break the encryption, and to do that, speed is everything. The faster the computer, the faster it can break codes. The Data Encryption Standard, the 56-bit predecessor to the AES, debuted in 1976 and lasted about 25 years. The AES made its first appearance in 2001 and is expected to remain strong and durable for at least a decade. But if the NSA has secretly built a computer that is considerably faster than machines in the unclassified arena, then the agency has a chance of breaking the AES in a much shorter time. And with Bluffdale in operation, the NSA will have the luxury of storing an ever-expanding archive of intercepts until that breakthrough comes along.

But despite its progress, the agency has not finished building at Oak Ridge, nor is it satisfied with breaking the petaflop barrier. Its next goal is to reach exaflop speed, one quintillion (1018) operations a second, and eventually zettaflop (1021) and yottaflop.

These goals have considerable support in Congress. Last November a bipartisan group of 24 senators sent a letter to President Obama urging him to approve continued funding through 2013 for the Department of Energy’s exascale computing initiative (the NSA’s budget requests are classified). They cited the necessity to keep up with and surpass China and Japan. “The race is on to develop exascale computing capabilities,” the senators noted. The reason was clear: By late 2011 the Jaguar (now with a peak speed of 2.33 petaflops) ranked third behind Japan’s “K Computer,” with an impressive 10.51 petaflops, and the Chinese Tianhe-1A system, with 2.57 petaflops.

But the real competition will take place in the classified realm. To secretly develop the new exaflop (or higher) machine by 2018, the NSA has proposed constructing two connecting buildings, totaling 260,000 square feet, near its current facility on the East Campus of Oak Ridge. Called the Multiprogram Computational Data Center, the buildings will be low and wide like giant warehouses, a design necessary for the dozens of computer cabinets that will compose an exaflop-scale machine, possibly arranged in a cluster to minimize the distance between circuits. According to a presentation delivered to DOE employees in 2009, it will be an “unassuming facility with limited view from roads,” in keeping with the NSA’s desire for secrecy. And it will have an extraordinary appetite for electricity, eventually using about 200 megawatts, enough to power 200,000 homes. The computer will also produce a gargantuan amount of heat, requiring 60,000 tons of cooling equipment, the same amount that was needed to serve both of the World Trade Center towers.

In the meantime Cray is working on the next step for the NSA, funded in part by a $250 million contract with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. It’s a massively parallel supercomputer called Cascade, a prototype of which is due at the end of 2012. Its development will run largely in parallel with the unclassified effort for the DOE and other partner agencies. That project, due in 2013, will upgrade the Jaguar XT5 into an XK6, codenamed Titan, upping its speed to 10 to 20 petaflops.

Yottabytes and exaflops, septillions and undecillions—the race for computing speed and data storage goes on. In his 1941 story “The Library of Babel,” Jorge Luis Borges imagined a collection of information where the entire world’s knowledge is stored but barely a single word is understood. In Bluffdale the NSA is constructing a library on a scale that even Borges might not have contemplated. And to hear the masters of the agency tell it, it’s only a matter of time until every word is illuminated.

James Bamford (washwriter@gmail.com) is the author of The Shadow Factory: The Ultra-Secret NSA from 9/11 to the Eavesdropping on America.


Something we need to remember and will have to do –

Rein in the gov!

It has gotten much too big, powerful and abusive!

We the People are going to be powerless,

Unless we remember the words of

President Lincoln –

al quote 


There is a history and time lines in the early posts of this blog which address some of these issues but this piece puts it all together & wraps it up with a dose of reality by comparing it to what is happening currently!

The present administration is the most corrupt administration this country has ever had! Ever! No exceptions or exclusions! They are crime, incorporated and they want to destroy our Constitutional liberties by invalidating our Founding Documents and relegating them to a historical trash heap! They are calling them “out of date and irrelevant”! Congressional officials, among others, are stating that they can pick and choose which ones to uphold and which ones to curtail! 




Flashback: Watergate, Nazis, Nixon, Rockefeller

May 17, 2013 by Jon Rappoport

25th anniversary of Nixon resignation

President Richard Nixon resigned on Aug. 8, 1974.

Watergate eventually became the story of two young rookie reporters who exposed and took down a President.

Try to think of another major story in your lifetime wherein the reporters themselves took center stage and, in the process, nearly eclipsed their own work.

One of them, Bob Woodward, expanded his fame. The powers that be permitted him to go on and, with extraordinary access, write books criticizing future Presidents. Woodward became the in-house attack dog. Mr. Limited Hangout.

The other reporter, Carl Bernstein, faded into relative obscurity. Well, he began connecting journalists to the CIA. That wasn’t a smart career move. That was, perhaps, a case of biting the hand that had fed him.

To learn why Richard Nixon was really blown out of the White House, you could begin with the infamous Nazi chemical/pharmaceutical cartel IG Farben, the cartel that pushed Adolf Hitler over the top into power in Germany.

One of its lasting legacies is the multinational corporation ballooning out into titanic proportions. Farben didn’t just buy smaller companies; it forged favorable agreements with huge corporations all over the world: Standard Oil (Rockefeller), Rhone-Poulenc, Imperial Chemical Industries, DuPont, Dow.

During World War II, Josiah Du Bois, representing the U.S. Federal government, was sent on a fact-finding mission to Guatemala. His comment: “As far as I can tell, the country is a wholly owned subsidiary of Farben.”

What Farben stood for was an attempt to remake the planet in terms of power.

Farben held important cards. It employed brilliant chemists who, in some ways, were far ahead of its competitors. Farben was all about synthetics: rubber, oil, dyes, pharmaceuticals.

Farben saw itself as a modern version of the old alchemists, transforming one substance into another. It came to believe that, with enough time, it would be able to make anything from anything. It envisioned labs in which basic chemical facts would be changed so that, in practice, elements and compounds would be virtually interchangeable.

This was in line with the Nazi obsession to discover the lost secrets of the mythical Aryan race and then reconstitute it with selective breeding, genetic engineering and, of course, the mass murder of “lesser peoples.”

On one level was the idea of chemical transformations, and on another level was the transformation of the human species.

It was really all one piece. The Nazi ideology was the glue.

It was the picture of scientism, the philosophy that asserts science should absolutely rule all facets of life. Nazi Germany showed the world what that philosophy looks like in practice. Farben had prisoners shipped from Auschwitz to its nearby facility, where horrendous medical/pharmaceutical experiments were carried out on them.

At the end of World War II, the Farben executives were put on trial and, despite the efforts of Telford Taylor, the chief U.S. prosecutor, the sentences handed out were light.

There was a reason for this. A new world was coming into being, and mega-corporations and cartels were at the heart of it. They would be the engines driving the global economy and pillaging the natural resources of the planet. It was colonialism with a different face, the East India Company running on technology and industry and a planetary reach beyond anything ever attempted.

So the Farben moguls, and those like them, were seen by many people as designers of the new “peace.”

Consider the total volume of international trade of goods today: The largest 300 corporations in the world are responsible for an unbelievable percentage of it — as high as 25 percent.

So now you see the reason why these treaties like the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) have been launched. Mega-corporations want to roam free. They want to be able to inject money into any entity in the world and suddenly remove it at will. They certainly want to be able to ship goods from one nation to another without paying tariffs, which otherwise would cost them an extraordinary amount of money. For these corporations, nations don’t really exist anymore; they are convenient fictions. These corporations don’t want any restrictions on their plundering of the Global Village.

Farben envisioned and planned for this kind of licentious freedom. It saw itself as more than a German cartel. It was already international, and it was moving toward domination.

However, more powerful forces would overtake it — and I’m not just talking about American soldiers. In the sphere of international influence, there are the Plan A and Plan B people. The Plan A controllers (think Rockefeller dynasty, among others) opted for a “softer, gentler” approach, a more covert program whereby, over a long period of time, the world population would be brought under a global management system, in which mega-corporations would play the central role. The Plan B people, Nazis and their allied interests, wanted crushing force and violence to achieve a somewhat similar goal in a much shorter period of time — with Germany as the leading prow of the movement.

It is in the arena of pharmaceutical domination that one of Farben’s goals has endured. Two of its original components, Bayer and Hoechst, have survived and prospered. And many other drug companies have copied the basic model.

For a number of years, I’ve researched and published on this subject. Death, maiming, destruction, poisoning: These are correct assessments of the overall effects of drug-based medicine. Judging solely by these effects, one could say that war by other means has continued after 1945. And the fronts of devastation have spread.

On the mega-corporate front, the plan for world control remains the Rockefeller template: “free trade.” This plan was advanced, ceaselessly, for 40 years until, on Jan. 1, 1995, the World Trade Organization was fully formed and took charge of the criminal rules of global commerce: the crowning moment.

However, back in the early 1970s, the whole operation had almost been derailed. One man, a crook, a President, a liar, an insecure parody of a head of state, Richard Nixon, went off script. He really went off script.

In an effort to bolster U.S. companies and protect them from foreign competition inside the United States, Nixon began erecting tariffs on a range of goods imported into the United States.

If this Nixon economic plan spread to other countries, the entire global program to install “free trade” and mega-corporate emperors on their thrones for a thousand years could crash and burn.

Nixon was a Rockefeller man. He was owned by them. He’d been rescued from financial ruin by The Family, and now he was in the White House undermining their greatest dream. You can’t overstate the degree of the betrayal from the Rockefeller point of view. You simply can’t.

Something had to be done. The President had to go. This was the real motivation behind Watergate. This was the real op. Yes, there were sub-motives and smaller contexts, as in any major op, but the prime mover was: Get free trade back on track, and get suitable revenge on the puppet in the White House who went off the script.

Any historian who overlooks this is an outright fool or a deceiver.

Whether the Watergate break-in was planned to serve the higher goal or was pounced upon, after the fact, as the grand opportunity, is beside the point. It was there, and it was used. It became the starting point for the Washington Post, its publisher, veteran editor and two cub reporters to break Nixon into pieces.

And if the Rockefeller people needed an inside man to report on the deteriorating mental state of the President as he heated up in the pressure cooker, they had Henry Kissinger, who was another Rockefeller operative.

The Washington Post was owned by Katharine Graham, who was herself a very close friend of the Rockefeller family. Years later, she would be awarded a medal of honor by the University of Chicago, an institution founded by John D. Rockefeller. On her death, a paid heartfelt obituary was inserted in The New York Times by the trustees, faculty and staff of Rockefeller University, where she had served on the University Council.

And she and Nixon already hated each other by the early 1970s.

The managing editor of The Washington Post, Ben Bradlee, was an old hand at writing promotional material, having worked in Europe crafting releases for a CIA front group. A former naval intelligence man, he liked one of his cub reporters, Woodward, who had also worked for the Navy in intelligence.

When Woodward came to Bradlee with a story about a man in a parking garage who was passing secrets from the White House/FBI about Watergate, we are supposed to believe that Bradlee naturally responded by giving the green light to a major investigation. Woodward and Carl Bernstein, another cub, would undertake it — with nothing more than Bradlee’s reputation and the future survival of The Post and Graham’s empire on the line if the cubs got it wrong.

We are supposed to believe Bradlee gave the green light without knowing who the man in the garage was, without knowing whether Woodward could be trusted, without even getting permission from Graham to move ahead.

Bradlee, a grizzled veteran of Washington, understanding exactly what Washington could do to people who told secrets out of school, just said to Woodward and Bernstein, “You’d better be damned sure you’re right, because otherwise we’re all in trouble.”

Two untested cub reporters set loose in a cage with tigers.

The odds of that happening were nil. Bradlee had to know a great deal from the beginning, and he had to have Graham’s signal to move. The series of breaking stories would be spoon-fed to the unsuspecting young reporters. They would be consumed by their ambition to advance their careers. Bradlee was confident because he had the essentials of the scandal in hand — all the way up to Nixon, the target — well in advance of his two reporters.

To have proceeded otherwise, Bradlee was simply not that kind of fool. Whatever Deep Throat, the man in the garage, was dishing out to Woodward didn’t really matter. Bradlee already had it in his pocket. Deep Throat was merely a contrivance to allow the story to expand and grow by steps, and to permit Woodward and Bernstein to believe they were peeling layers from an onion.

The man behind the curtain was David Rockefeller.

After the whole scandal had been exposed and Nixon had flown away, in disgrace, from the White House for the last time, Rockefeller addressed a meeting of the Chamber of Commerce of the European Community (October 1975). He was there to allay their fears about Nixon’s betrayal of the new economic world order. There was really very little he needed to say. Rockefeller had already created (1973) the free-trade Trilateral Commission. A new puppet, Gerald Ford, was in the White House; and Ford had appointed David’s brother, Nelson Rockefeller, as his Vice President.

David told the European attendees, “Fortunately, there are no signs that these anti-[free] trade measures [of Nixon] are supported by the [Ford] Administration.”

And that was that. The global mega-corporate colossus was back on track.

The temporary rip in the Matrix had been repaired.

On a far lower level of power politics, everyone and his brother was consumed with the contrails of the scandal that had driven away Nixon and his colleagues. People were congratulating each other on the expunging of a corrupt conspiracy from public life.

The real players, of course, were still in place, more powerful than ever. David Rockefeller and his aides were preparing for an even greater coup. They had chosen an obscure man with zero name recognition to be the next President of the United States: Jimmy Carter. Carter would function to forward the goals of the Trilateral Commission in bold view of anyone who knew the score.

And every President since Carter, regardless of party affiliation, has supported and extended those globalist-corporate goals, no questions asked. Barack Obama, who fatuously remarked during his 2008 election campaign that NAFTA “needs to be revisited,” has taken his cues like any other puppet.

When, from this perspective, you examine the global takeover of land and resources by GMO agribusiness, the destruction of small family farms, the plundering of natural resources in the Third World, the use of U.N. “peacekeepers” and “humanitarian groups” and intelligence agencies to create a wedge, for corporations, into these areas, you see the hand of the Rockefeller plan.

When you see the destruction of currencies and the escalation of insupportable debt, the incursion of a bewildering number of U.N.-affiliated groups sinking their teeth into local communities all over the planet to “manage sustainable development,” you see the plan.

On the approaching anniversary of Watergate, you can see that the trashing of Nixon — who, like every President since, was put in place to serve his masters — is an opportunity to notice the Plan Behind the Curtain.

Obama? Merely the latest willing front man. A third-rate hustler.

The innocuous-sounding “free trade” policy is the No. 1 priority of every American President. He must do two things: rarely speak of it and allow it to move forward. That’s all. In return, he gets to act as if he’s the most powerful man in the world.

But if he wobbles and considers taking up a position against free trade (corporate domination of the planet), he can look back and see what happened to Nixon. He can learn from that example.

He can recite the famous words of Zbiggie Brzezinski, co-founder of the Trilateral Commission and David Rockefeller’s intellectual flunkey: ”The nation state as a fundamental unit of man’s organized life has ceased to be the principal creative force: International banks and multinational corporations are acting and planning in terms that are far in advance of the political concepts of the nation-state.”

Like Carter, a future President can espouse the most wide-ranging humanitarian philosophy and ascend to a cloud of beautiful altrusim, admired by all — as long as he sticks to the plan.

If not, two reporters coming out of nowhere, wet behind the ears, eager for advancement, will magically learn of his missteps and demolish him.

–Jon Rappoport

Pasted Graphic jr

Jon Rappoport The author of an explosive collection, “The Matrix Revealed,” Jon Rappoport was a candidate for a U.S. Congressional seat in the 29th District of California. Nominated for a Pulitzer Prize, he has worked as an investigative reporter for 30 years, writing articles on politics, medicine and health for CBS Healthwatch, LA Weekly, Spin Magazine, Stern and other newspapers and magazines in the United States and Europe. Rappoport has delivered lectures and seminars on global politics, health, logic and creative power to audiences around the world. His blog, No More Fake News, can be read here.

Email this author | All posts by Jon Rappoport

Below is a “Letter to the Editor”

that makes some important observations on what we have become!

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This country is and has been ruled by a shadow government since the beginning!

Below are some examples and explanations!

CLick on each image to enlarge it for reading!

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inv gov qs p2sm

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Some further insight into

The Council On Foreign Relations and David Rockefeller –

cfr & dr

Information on the Bilderberg Group  is below

from the founder, Prince Bernhard

Bilderberg Group Secrets plus

These are only a few of the front groups for the people who rule, known by various names, such as the elite, the illuminati, the shadow government to name a few and their goal is a new world order . A world with no borders, a much smaller total population, one that is easily controlled and ruled by them!

And some final words from one of the descendants of the 13 bloodlines that rule –

and those are facts not bragging points!

Do your own research!


If we want to survive as a free nation and a free people we have to ditch the Fed, kick the UN out of this country and nullify all the treaties that we have signed AND jail all the international bankers for crimes against this nation and its people, like the Icelanders did! IF we do not accomplish this, then all else will be futile!



I have been saying this for many years and in many places in this blog! If we the people do not rid ourselves of the fed, we will never be financially solvent or free! The Fed was one of the biggest scams ever perpetrated on the American people. It was planned and set up through a conspiratorial meeting on Jekyll Island in 1912 & pushed through Congress, when most members had already left for home on December 23, 1913 – almost 100 years ago! The book that explains the start of the Federal Reserve is “The Creature From Jekyll Island” and it is a book that you should read, to understand the fraud that was pushed down our throats! I normally do not promote items but this is such an important work that I am listing all the information for it. It is available on Amazon & other places on line!


“Book Description

Publication Date: May 1998
Where does money come from? Where does it go? Who makes it? The money magicians’ secrets are unveiled. We get a close look at their mirrors and smoke machines, their pulleys, cogs, and wheels that create the grand illusion called money. A dry and boring subject? Just wait!

You’ll be hooked in five minutes. Reads like a detective story – which it really is. But it’s all true. This book is about the most blatant scam of all history. It’s all here: the cause of wars, boom-bust cycles, inflation, depression, prosperity.

Creature from Jekyll Island is a “must read.” Your world view will definitely change. You’ll never trust a politician again – or a banker.”



11 Reasons Why The Federal Reserve Should Be Abolished

Michael Snyder

Economic Collapse
May 7, 2013

If the American people truly understood how the Federal Reserve system works and what it has done to us, they would be screaming for it to be abolished immediately. It is a system that was designed by international bankers for the benefit of international bankers, and it is systematically impoverishing the American people. The Federal Reserve system is the primary reason why our currency has declined in value by well over 95 percent and our national debt has gotten more than 5000 times larger over the past 100 years. The Fed creates our “booms” and our “busts”, and they have done an absolutely miserable job of managing our economy. But why do we need a bunch of unelected private bankers to manage our economy and print our money for us in the first place?

Wouldn’t our economy function much more efficiently if we allowed the free market to set interest rates? And according to Article I, Section 8 of the U.S. Constitution, the U.S. Congress is the one that is supposed to have the authority to “coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures”. So why is the Federal Reserve doing it? Sadly, this is the way it works all over the globe today. In fact, all 187 nationsthat belong to the IMF have a central bank. But the truth is that there are much better alternatives. We just need to get people educated.

The following are 11 reasons why the Federal Reserve should be abolished…

#1 The Greatest Period Of Economic Growth In The History Of The United States Happened When There Was No Central Bank

Did you know that the greatest period of economic growth in U.S. history was between the Civil War and 1913? And guess what? That was a period when there was no central bank in the United States at all. The following is from Wikipedia

The Gilded Age saw the greatest period of economic growth in American history. After the short-lived panic of 1873, the economy recovered with the advent of hard money policies and industrialization. From 1869 to 1879, the US economy grew at a rate of 6.8% for real GDP and 4.5% for real GDP per capita, despite the panic of 1873. The economy repeated this period of growth in the 1880s, in which the wealth of the nation grew at an annual rate of 3.8%, while the GDP was also doubled.

So if our greatest period of economic prosperity was during a time when there was no Federal Reserve, then why shouldn’t we try such a system again?

#2 The Federal Reserve Is Systematically Destroying The Value Of The U.S. Dollar

The United States never had a persistent, ongoing problem with inflation until the Federal Reserve was created in 1913.

If you do not believe this, just check out the inflation chart in this article.

The Federal Reserve systematically penalizes those that try to save their money. Inflation is a tax, and the value of each one of our dollars goes down a little bit more every single day.

But over time, it really adds up. In fact, the value of the U.S. dollar has fallen by 83 percent since 1970.

Anyone that goes to the grocery store on a regular basis knows how painful inflation can be. The following is a list that shows how prices for many of the things that we buy on a regular basis absolutely skyrocketed between 2002 and 2012

Eggs: 73%

Coffee: 90%

Peanut Butter: 40%

Milk: 26%

A Loaf Of White Bread: 39%

Spaghetti And Macaroni: 44%

Orange Juice: 46%

Red Delicious Apples: 43%

Beer: 25%

Wine: 60%

Electricity: 42%

Margarine: 143%

Tomatoes: 22%

Turkey: 56%

Ground Beef: 61%

Chocolate Chip Cookies: 39%

Gasoline: 158%

Even the price of water has absolutely soared in recent years. According to USA Today, water bills have actually tripled over the past 12 years in some areas of the country.

So how can the Federal Reserve get away with claiming that we are in a “low inflation” environment?

Well, what Ben Bernanke never tells you is that the way that the government calculates inflation has changed more than 20 times since 1978.

The truth is that the real rate of inflation is somewhere between five and ten percent right now, but you will never hear about this on the mainstream news.

#3 The Federal Reserve Is A Perpetual Debt Machine

The Federal Reserve system was designed to be a trap. The intent of the bankers was to trap the U.S. government in an endless debt spiral from which it could never possibly escape.

But most Americans don’t understand this. In fact, most Americans don’t even understand where money comes from.

If you don’t believe this, just go out on the street and ask regular people where money comes from. The responses will be something like this…

“Duh – I don’t know. I’ve got to get home to watch American Idol.”

This is why it is so important to get people educated. I think that most Americans would be horrified to learn that the creation of more money in our system also involves the creation of more debt.

The following is a summary of money creation that comes from one of my previous articles

When the U.S. government decides that it wants to spend another billion dollars that it does not have, it does not print up a billion dollars.

Rather, the U.S. government creates a bunch of U.S. Treasury bonds (debt) and takes them over to the Federal Reserve.

The Federal Reserve creates a billion dollars out of thin air and exchanges them for the U.S. Treasury bonds.

So what does the Federal Reserve do with those Treasury bonds? I went on to explain what happens…

The U.S. Treasury bonds that the Federal Reserve receives in exchange for the money it has created out of nothing are auctioned off through the Federal Reserve system.

But wait.

There is a problem.

Because the U.S. government must pay interest on the Treasury bonds, the amount of debt that has been created by this transaction is greater than the amount of money that has been created.

So where will the U.S. government get the money to pay that debt?

Well, the theory is that we can get money to circulate through the economy really, really fast and tax it at a high enough rate that the government will be able to collect enough taxes to pay the debt.

But that never actually happens, does it?

And the creators of the Federal Reserve understood this as well. They understood that the U.S. government would not have enough money to both run the government and service the national debt. They knew that the U.S. government would have to keep borrowing even more money in an attempt to keep up with the game.

Men like Thomas Edison and Henry Ford could not understand why we would adopt such a foolish system. For example, Thomas Edison was once quoted in the New York Times as saying the following…

That is to say, under the old way any time we wish to add to the national wealth we are compelled to add to the national debt.

Now, that is what Henry Ford wants to prevent. He thinks it is stupid, and so do I, that for the loan of $30,000,000 of their own money the people of the United States should be compelled to pay $66,000,000 — that is what it amounts to, with interest. People who will not turn a shovelful of dirt nor contribute a pound of material will collect more money from the United States than will the people who supply the material and do the work. That is the terrible thing about interest. In all our great bond issues the interest is always greater than the principal. All of the great public works cost more than twice the actual cost, on that account. Under the present system of doing business we simply add 120 to 150 per cent, to the stated cost.

But here is the point: If our nation can issue a dollar bond, it can issue a dollar bill. The element that makes the bond good makes the bill good.

Unfortunately, today most Americans don’t even understand how the system works. They just assume that we have the best system in the entire world.

Sadly, the reality is that the system is working just as the international bankers that designed it had hoped. The United States has the largest national debt in the history of the world, and we are stealing more than 100 million dollars from our children and our grandchildren every single hour of every single day in a desperate attempt to keep the debt spiral going.

#4 The Federal Reserve Is A Centrally-Planned Financial System That Is The Antithesis Of What A Free Market System Should Be

Why do we need someone to centrally-plan our financial system?

Isn’t that the kind of thing they do in communist China?

Why do we need someone to tell us what interest rates are going to be?

Why do we need someone to determine what “the target rate of inflation” should be?

If we actually had a free market system, the free market would be the one “managing” our economy.

But instead, we have become so accustomed to central planning that any alternatives seem to be absolutely unthinkable.

For example, CNBC cannot possibly imagine a world where the Fed (or some similar institution) was not running things…

But suppose the law were taken off the books? The Fed’s job—in simple terms—is to manage the nation’s money supply and achieve the sometimes-conflicting tasks of full employment, stable prices while fighting inflation or deflation.

How would the U.S. economy then function? Something has to take its place, right?

Global markets would also need some sort of economic direction from the U.S. The Fed manages the dollar — and as the world’s leading currency, a void left by a Fed-less America could throw those markets into chaos with uncertainty about who’s managing U.S. interest rates and the American economy.

I’ve got an idea – let’s let the free market “manage” U.S. interest rates and the American economy.

I know, it’s a crazy idea, but I have a sneaking suspicion that it just might work beautifully.

#5 The Federal Reserve Creates Bubbles And Busts

Do you remember the Dotcom bubble?

Or what about the housing bubble?

By dramatically distorting interest rates and financial behavior, the Federal Reserve creates economic bubbles and the corresponding economic busts.

And guess what?

Now it is happening again.

When will the American people decide that they have had enough?

If you can believe it, there have been 10 different economic recessions since 1950. And of course the Federal Reserve even admits that it helped create the Great Depression of the 1930s.

Perhaps it is time to try something different.

#6 The Federal Reserve Is Privately Owned

It has been said that the Federal Reserve is about as “federal” as Federal Express is.

Most Americans still believe that the Federal Reserve is a “federal agency”, but that is simply not true. The following comes from factcheck.org

The stockholders in the 12 regional Federal Reserve Banks are the privately owned banks that fall under the Federal Reserve System. These include all national banks (chartered by the federal government) and those state-chartered banks that wish to join and meet certain requirements. About 38 percent of the nation’s more than 8,000 banks are members of the system, and thus own the Fed banks.

And even the Federal Reserve itself has argued that it is “not an agency” of the federal government in court.

So why is there still so much confusion about this?

We should not be allowing a private entity that is owned and dominated by the banks to make decisions that dramatically affect the daily lives of all the rest of us.

#7 The Federal Reserve Greatly Favors The “Too Big To Fail” Banks

Since the Federal Reserve is owned by the banks, should we be surprised that it serves the interests of the banks?

In particular, the Fed has been extremely good to the “too big to fail” banks.

Over the past several decades, those banks have grown tremendously in both size and power.

Back in 1970, the five largest U.S. banks held 17 percent of all U.S. banking industry assets.

Today, the five largest U.S. banks hold 52 percent of all U.S. banking industry assets.

#8 The Federal Reserve Gives Secret Bailouts To Their Friends

The Federal Reserve is the only institution in America that can print money out of thin air and loan it to their friends any time they want to.

For example, did you know that the Federal Reserve made 16 trillion dollars in secret loans to their friends during the last financial crisis?

The following list is taken directly from page 131 of a GAO audit report, and it shows which banks received secret loans from the Fed…

Citigroup – $2.513 trillion
Morgan Stanley – $2.041 trillion
Merrill Lynch – $1.949 trillion
Bank of America – $1.344 trillion
Barclays PLC – $868 billion
Bear Sterns – $853 billion
Goldman Sachs – $814 billion
Royal Bank of Scotland – $541 billion
JP Morgan Chase – $391 billion
Deutsche Bank – $354 billion
UBS – $287 billion
Credit Suisse – $262 billion
Lehman Brothers – $183 billion
Bank of Scotland – $181 billion
BNP Paribas – $175 billion
Wells Fargo – $159 billion
Dexia – $159 billion
Wachovia – $142 billion
Dresdner Bank – $135 billion
Societe Generale – $124 billion
“All Other Borrowers” – $2.639 trillion

If you will notice, a number of the banks listed above are foreign banks.

Why is the Fed allowed to print money out of thin air and lend it to foreign banks?

#9 The Federal Reserve Is Paying Banks Not To Lend Money

Did you know that the Federal Reserve is actually paying U.S. banks not to lend money?

That doesn’t make sense. Our economy is based on credit, andsmall businesses desperately need loans in order to operate.

But the Fed has decided to pay banks not to risk their money. Section 128 of the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 allows the Federal Reserve to pay interest on “excess reserves” that U.S. banks park at the Fed.

So the big banks can just send their cash to the Fed and watch the money come rolling in risk-free.

As the chart below demonstrates, the banks have taken great advantage of this tremendous deal…


#10 The Federal Reserve Has An Astounding Track Record Of Failure

Over the past ten years, the Federal Reserve has been an abysmal failure when it comes to running the economy.

But despite a track record of failure that would make the Chicago Cubs look like a roaring success, Barack Obama actually decided to nominate Ben Bernanke for a second term as the Chairman of the Federal Reserve.

What a mistake.

Just check out some of the things that Bernanke said prior to the last financial crisis. The following is an extended excerpt from an article that I published previously


In 2005, Bernanke said that we shouldn’t worry because housing prices had never declined on a nationwide basis before and he said that he believed that the U.S. would continue to experience close to “full employment”….

“We’ve never had a decline in house prices on a nationwide basis. So, what I think what is more likely is that house prices will slow, maybe stabilize, might slow consumption spending a bit. I don’t think it’s gonna drive the economy too far from its full employment path, though.”

In 2005, Bernanke also said that he believed that derivatives were perfectly safe and posed no danger to financial markets….

“With respect to their safety, derivatives, for the most part, are traded among very sophisticated financial institutions and individuals who have considerable incentive to understand them and to use them properly.”

In 2006, Bernanke said that housing prices would probably keep rising….

“Housing markets are cooling a bit. Our expectation is that the decline in activity or the slowing in activity will be moderate, that house prices will probably continue to rise.”

In 2007, Bernanke insisted that there was not a problem with subprime mortgages….

“At this juncture, however, the impact on the broader economy and financial markets of the problems in the subprime market seems likely to be contained. In particular, mortgages to prime borrowers and fixed-rate mortgages to all classes of borrowers continue to perform well, with low rates of delinquency.”

In 2008, Bernanke said that a recession was not coming….

“The Federal Reserve is not currently forecasting a recession.”

A few months before Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac collapsed, Bernanke insisted that they were totally secure….

“The GSEs are adequately capitalized. They are in no danger of failing.”


There are many, many more examples that could be listed, but hopefully you get the point.

And now it is happening again. Bernanke is telling the American people that everything is going to be just fine and that no major problems are ahead.

Do you believe him this time?

#11 The Federal Reserve Is Unaccountable To The American People

What is the most important political issue to most Americans?

Survey after survey has shown that the American people care about the economy more than anything else.

So why do we allow an unelected, unaccountable entity that is privately-owned to make our economic decisions for us?

The Federal Reserve has become so powerful that it has been called “the fourth branch of government”. Every four years, presidential candidates argue about who will be best at managing the economy, but the truth is that it is the Fed that manages our economy.

We are told that the “independence” of the Federal Reserve is absolutely critical, but don’t the American people deserve to have a say in the running of the economy?

Our system is broken. It is a system that will continue to create more bubbles and more debt until the entire thing finally collapses for good.

Thomas Jefferson once stated that if he could add just one more amendment to the U.S. Constitution it would be a ban on all government borrowing….

I wish it were possible to obtain a single amendment to our Constitution. I would be willing to depend on that alone for the reduction of the administration of our government to the genuine principles of its Constitution; I mean an additional article, taking from the federal government the power of borrowing.

But instead of banning government borrowing, we have allowed ourselves to become enslaved to a system where government borrowing actually creates our money.

We do not need to have a central bank. There are much better alternatives. We just need to get people educated.

Please share this article with as many people as you possibly can. These are things that every American should know about the Fed, and we need to educate the American people about the Federal Reserve while there is still time.

This article was posted: Tuesday, May 7, 2013 at 6:10 am

Tags: economics, financial

We The People need to take charge of our country because we have never been this close to loosing it and if it goes down the progressive (Marxist) path – we will never be able to get it back! Now is the time to make a decision of where you stand and what you will do to protect the Constitution. We do not have a lot of time left!



Homeland Security insider warns

orchestrated collapse of U.S. dollar ‘has begun’

Tuesday, April 02, 2013 by: Jonathan Benson, staff writer

(NaturalNews) The countdown clock is ticking as the insanely evil cabal known as the “global elite” prepares its final moves for a complete world takeover. As relayed by Canada Free Press (CFP), an insider at the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), which is America’s very own reanimation of the Nazi SS, recently delivered an ominous warning that America’s days are numbered, and that Americans basically need to ready themselves for the worst, which is yet to come.

Not only is a complete collapse of the U.S. dollar on the very near horizon, according to the unnamed source, but a single, uniform currency system is already in the works to take its place. All that needs to happen now is for the final hammer to drop, so to speak, an event to truly shake the people and wake them out of their drunken, entertainment-imbibed stupors. But when this finally happens, it will already be too late for anyone to actually do anything about it.

“The first shots in a global economic takeover were fired in Cyprus,” explains Doug Hagmann from CFP about the situation as it is currently playing out. “It is a plan for a one world Communist economy where the ‘middle class’ will be wiped out through a series of events that will have the same ultimate effect as we are seeing in present day Cyprus.”

And just what, exactly, happened in Cyprus? The mainstream media claims it was a simple emergency “tax deal,” a “levy” designed to pull the country out of crisis. But in reality, the people of Cyprus, and those with money in Cyprus banks, were literally robbed of untold billions of dollars by the central bankers, who overnight imposed an unannounced freeze on a large portion of depositors’ money. According to more recent reports, up to 40 percent of depositors’ cash could be apprehended as part of the deal.

Federal Reserve recently stole more than 25 percent of Americans’ savings and investments with ‘quantitative easing’ scam

But what is happening in Cyprus is also happening in the U.S. Very few Americans, it turns out, are aware of the fact that the Federal Reserve’s quantitative easing scheme, which intentionally injects more paper money into the general money supply, causes inflation. And inflation leads to devaluation of money, which in essence is just another form of stealing from the people to bail out the central bankers.

Though these cash injections might lead to immediate economic jump starts, they never last, and the long-term consequence of their repeated use is hyperinflation and destruction of the currency. And the unfortunate truth of the matter is that all levels of government have been infiltrated with globalists serving the interests of the central bankers at the expense of the people.

“The plan for a global currency or a one world economic order is a matter that transcends political parties,” writes Hagmann. “Those who continue to argue in the Republican-Democrat meme are doing nothing more than providing entertainment to distract people from the real issue, that of the global elite versus the rest of us.”

“The top of the pyramid in this Ponzi scheme is filled with members of both U.S. political parties who are systematically pillaging us and our future generations into financial debt, bondage and slavery. It is a plan that has been in the works for centuries. The problem, however, is that we have been conditioned not to think that big. Yet, the lie is that big.”

Sources for this article include:




Learn more: http://www.naturalnews.com/039744_US_dollar_collapse_Federal_Reserve.html#ixzz2PnPGBN3W

Our financial problems are multi layered – the current administration is working overtime to make sure their implementation of the “Cloward-Piven” doctrine continues to be on track! An explanation is below – this is important to understand because this is how we are going to become a socialist nation!


Cloward–Piven strategy

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Cloward–Piven strategy is a political strategy outlined in 1966 by American sociologists and political activists Richard Cloward (1926–2001) and Frances Fox Piven (b. 1932) that called for overloading the U.S. public welfare system in order to precipitate a crisis that would lead to a replacement of the welfare system with a national system of “a guaranteed annual income and thus an end to poverty”. Cloward and Piven were a married couple who were both professors at the Columbia University School of Social Work. The strategy was formulated in a May 1966 article in liberal[1] magazine The Nation titled “The Weight of the Poor: A Strategy to End Poverty”.[2]

The two were critical of the public welfare system, and their strategy called for overloading that system to force a different set of policies to address poverty. They stated that many Americans who were eligible for welfare were not receiving benefits, and that a welfare enrollment drive would strain local budgets, precipitating a crisis at the state and local levels that would be a wake-up call for the federal government, particularly the Democratic Party, thus forcing it to implement a national solution to poverty. Cloward and Piven wrote that “the ultimate objective of this strategy [would be] to wipe out poverty by establishing a guaranteed annual income…”[2] There would also be side consequences of this strategy, according to Cloward and Piven. These would include: easing the plight of the poor in the short-term (through their participation in the welfare system); shoring up support for the national Democratic Party then-splintered by pluralistic interests (through its cultivation of poor and minority constituencies by implementing a national “solution” to poverty); and relieving local governments of the financially and politically onerous burdens of public welfare (through a national “solution” to poverty)[citation needed].

Contents  [show]


The strategy

Cloward and Piven’s article is focused on forcing the Democratic Party, which in 1966 controlled the presidency and both houses of the United States Congress, to take federal action to help the poor. They stated that full enrollment of those eligible for welfare “would produce bureaucratic disruption in welfare agencies and fiscal disruption in local and state governments” that would “deepen existing divisions among elements in the big-city Democratic coalition: the remaining white middle class, the working-class ethnic groups and the growing minority poor. To avoid a further weakening of that historic coalition, a national Democratic administration would be constrained to advance a federal solution to poverty that would override local welfare failures, local class and racial conflicts and local revenue dilemmas.”[3] They wrote:

The ultimate objective of this strategy—to wipe out poverty by establishing a guaranteed annual income—will be questioned by some. Because the ideal of individual social and economic mobility has deep roots, even activists seem reluctant to call for national programs to eliminate poverty by the outright redistribution of income.[3]

Michael Reisch and Janice Andrews wrote that Cloward and Piven “proposed to create a crisis in the current welfare system – by exploiting the gap between welfare law and practice – that would ultimately bring about its collapse and replace it with a system of guaranteed annual income. They hoped to accomplish this end by informing the poor of their rights to welfare assistance, encouraging them to apply for benefits and, in effect, overloading an already overburdened bureaucracy.”[4]


Focus on Democrats

The authors pinned their hopes on creating disruption within the Democratic Party. “Conservative Republicans are always ready to declaim the evils of public welfare, and they would probably be the first to raise a hue and cry. But deeper and politically more telling conflicts would take place within the Democratic coalition,” they wrote. “Whites – both working class ethnic groups and many in the middle class – would be aroused against the ghetto poor, while liberal groups, which until recently have been comforted by the notion that the poor are few… would probably support the movement. Group conflict, spelling political crisis for the local party apparatus, would thus become acute as welfare rolls mounted and the strains on local budgets became more severe.”[5]


Reception and criticism

Howard Phillips, chairman of The Conservative Caucus, was quoted in 1982 as saying that the strategy could be effective because “Great Society programs had created a vast army of full-time liberal activists whose salaries are paid from the taxes of conservative working people.”[6]

Liberal commentator Michael Tomasky, writing about the strategy in the 1990s and again in 2011, called it “wrongheaded and self-defeating”, writing: “It apparently didn’t occur to [Cloward and Piven] that the system would just regard rabble-rousing black people as a phenomenon to be ignored or quashed.”[7]


Impact of the strategy

Cloward and Piven themselves, in papers published in 1971 and 1977, argued that mass unrest in the United States, especially between 1964 and 1969, did lead to a massive expansion of welfare rolls, though not to the guaranteed-income program that they had hoped for.[8] Political scientist Robert Albritton disagreed, writing in 1979 that the data did not support this thesis; he offered an alternative explanation for the rise in welfare caseloads.

In his 2006 book Winning the Race, political commentator John McWhorter attributed the rise in the welfare state after the 1960s to the Cloward–Piven strategy, but wrote about it negatively, stating that the strategy “created generations of black people for whom working for a living is an abstraction.”[9]

According to historian Robert E. Weir in 2007, “Although the strategy helped to boost recipient numbers between 1966 and 1975, the revolution its proponents envisioned never transpired.”[10]

Some commentators have blamed the Cloward–Piven strategy for the near-bankruptcy of New York City in 1975.[11][12]

Conservative commentator Glenn Beck referred to the Cloward-Piven Strategy often on his Fox News television show, Glenn Beck, during its run from 2009 to 2011, reiterating his opinion that it had helped to inspire President Barack Obama‘s economic policy. On February 18, 2010, for example, Beck said, “you’ve got total destruction of wealth coming… It’s the final phase of the Cloward-Piven strategy, which is collapse the system.”[13]

Richard Kim, writing in 2010 in The Nation (in which the original essay appeared), called such assertions “a reactionary paranoid fantasy…” but says that “the left’s gut reaction upon hearing of it–to laugh it off as a Scooby-Doo comic mystery–does nothing to blunt its appeal or limit its impact.”[14] The Nation later stated that Beck blames the “Cloward-Piven Strategy” for “the financial crisis of 2008, healthcare reform, Obama’s election and massive voter fraud” and has resulted in the posting of much violent and threatening rhetoric by users on Beck’s website, including death threats against Frances Fox Piven.[15] For her part, Piven vigorously continues to defend the original idea, calling its conservative interpretation “lunatic”.[16]

And the value of our dollar keeps on spiraling down!

I wish the image below was better quality, but hopefully it will give you enough information to research for yourself!


And that is how we have been brought to the brink of disaster!

Can the fiscal cliff be averted? I don’t know!





The U.S. Government Is Monitoring All Phone Calls, All Emails And All Internet Activity

Michael Snyder
American Dream
May 7, 2013

Big Brother is watching everything that you do on the Internet and listening to everything that you say on your phone. Every single day in America, the U.S. government intercepts and stores nearly 2 billion emails, phone calls and other forms of electronic communication. Former NSA employees have come forward and have described exactly what is taking place, and this surveillance activity has been reported on by prominent news organizations such as the Washington Post, Fox News and CNN, but nobody really seems to get too upset about it.

Either most Americans are not aware of what is really going on or they have just accepted it as part of modern life. But where will this end? Do we really want to live in a dystopian “Big Brother society” where the government literally reads every single thing that we write and listens to every single thing that we say? Is that what the future of America is going to look like? If so, what do you think our founding fathers would have said about that?

Many Americans may not realize this, but nothing that you do on your cell phone or on the Internet will ever be private again. According to the Washington Post, the NSA intercepts and stores an astounding amount of information every single day…

Every day, collection systems at the National Security Agency intercept and store 1.7 billion e-mails, phone calls and other types of communications. The NSA sorts a fraction of those into 70 separate databases.

But even the Washington Post may not have been aware of the full scope of the surveillance. In fact, National Security Agency whistleblower William Binney claims that the NSA has collected “20 trillion transactions” involving U.S. citizens…

In fact, I would suggest that they’ve assembled on the order of 20 trillion transactions about U.S. citizens with other U.S. citizens.

And NSA whistleblowers have also told us that the agency “has the capability to do individualized searches, similar to Google, for particular electronic communications in real time through such criteria as target addresses, locations, countries and phone numbers, as well as watch-listed names, keywords, and phrases in email.”

So the NSA must have tremendous data storage needs. That must be why they are building such a mammoth data storage center out in Utah. According to Fox News, it will have the capability of storing 5 zettabytes of data…

The NSA says the Utah Data Center is a facility for the intelligence community that will have a major focus on cyber security. The agency will neither confirm nor deny specifics. Some published reports suggest it could hold 5 zettabytes of data. (Just one zettabyte is the equivalent of about 62 billion stacked iPhones 5′s– that stretches past the moon.

Are you outraged by all of this?

You should be.

The U.S. government is spying on the American people and yet they continue to publicly deny that they are actually doing it.

Last week, this government spying program was once again confirmed by another insider. What former FBI counterterrorism agent Tim Clemente told Erin Burnett of CNN is absolutely astounding

BURNETT: Tim, is there any way, obviously, there is a voice mail they can try to get the phone companies to give that up at this point. It’s not a voice mail. It’s just a conversation. There’s no way they actually can find out what happened, right, unless she tells them?

CLEMENTE: “No, there is a way. We certainly have ways in national security investigations to find out exactly what was said in that conversation. It’s not necessarily something that the FBI is going to want to present in court, but it may help lead the investigation and/or lead to questioning of her. We certainly can find that out.

BURNETT: “So they can actually get that? People are saying, look, that is incredible.

CLEMENTE: “No, welcome to America. All of that stuff is being captured as we speak whether we know it or like it or not.”

Yes, “all of that stuff” is most definitely being “captured” and it is time for the Obama administration to be honest with the American people about what is actually going on.

Meanwhile, the recent bombing in Boston has many of our politicians calling for even tighter surveillance.

For example, New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg recently said that our interpretation of the U.S. Constitution will “have to change” to deal with the new threats that we are facing. More “smart cameras” are going up in New York, and Bloomberg says that we are “never going to know where all of our cameras are”. The following is from a recent RT article

New York City police officials intend to expand the already extensive use of surveillance cameras throughout town. The plan, unveiled Thursday, comes as part of a drive for increased security around the US following the Boston Marathon attack.

New York City Police Department Commissioner Ray Kelly announced the plan during a press conference with Mayor Michael Bloomberg, in which the two announced that the suspected Boston Marathon bombers were planning to attack New York next. The pair said they hope to discourage criminals by using so-called “smart cameras” that will aggregate data from 911 alerts, arrest records, mapped crime patterns, surveillance cameras and radiation detectors, among other tools, according to The Verge.

You’re never going to know where all of our cameras are,” Bloomberg told reporters gathered outside City Hall. “And that’s one of the ways you deter people; they just don’t know whether the person sitting next to you is somebody sitting there or a detective watching.”

Will you feel safer if the government is watching you 100% of the time?

Do you want them to see what you are doing 100% of the time?

You might want to think about that, because that is where all of this is headed.

In fact, the truth is that spy cameras are not just going up all over New York City. Most Americans may not realize this, but a network of spy cameras is now going up all over the nation. The following is an excerpt from one of my previous articles

“You are being watched. The government has a secret system – a machine – that spies on you every hour of every day.” That is how each episode of “Person of Interest” on CBS begins. Most Americans that have watched the show just assume that such a surveillance network is completely fictional and that the government would never watch us like that. Sadly, most Americans are wrong. Shocking new details have emerged this week which prove that a creepy nationwide network of spy cameras is being rolled out across the United States. Reportedly, these new spy cameras are “more accurate than modern facial recognition technology”, and every few seconds they send back data from cities and major landmarks all over the United States to a centralized processing center where it is analyzed. The authorities believe that the world has become such a dangerous place that the only way to keep us all safe is to watch what everyone does all the time. But the truth is that instead of “saving America”, all of these repressive surveillance technologies are slowly killing our liberties and our freedoms. America is being transformed into an Orwellian prison camp right in front of our eyes, and very few people are even objecting to it.

For many more examples of how the emerging Big Brother surveillance grid is tightening all around us, please see my previous article entitled “19 Signs That America Is Being Systematically Transformed Into A Giant Surveillance Grid“.

Meanwhile, Barack Obama is telling us to reject those that are warning us about government tyranny. The following is what he told the graduating class of The Ohio State University on May 5th, 2013

“Unfortunately, you’ve grown up hearing voices that incessantly warn of government as nothing more than some separate, sinister entity that’s at the root of all our problems. Some of these same voices also do their best to gum up the works. They’ll warn that tyranny always lurking just around the corner. You should reject these voices.”

So what do you think?

Should we just ignore all of the violations of our privacy that are happening?

Should we just ignore what the U.S. Constitution says about privacy and let the government monitor us however it wants to?

We ignore what this administration is doing at our peril!

We have lost a lot of our freedoms already and they will not be given back!

If we loose any more we will become the land of the government slaves!


gor 1984 quote

Below is a copy of our Constitution and the Amendments, with a link to the US Senate website, where these documents are digitally kept.

It is time for all of us to read them and learn them. They were written for our protection and to limit the government – not the other way around!




Constitution of the United States

Preamble   Article I   Article II   Article III   Article IV   Article V   Article VI





Written in 1787, ratified in 1788, and in operation since 1789, the United States Constitution is the world’s longest surviving written charter of government.  Its first three words – “We The People” – affirm that the government of the United States exists to serve its citizens.  The supremacy of the people through their elected representatives is recognized in Article I, which creates a Congress consisting of a Senate and a House of Representatives. The positioning of Congress at the beginning of the Constitution reaffirms its status as the “First Branch” of the federal government.

The Constitution assigned to Congress responsibility for organizing the executive and judicial branches, raising revenue, declaring war, and making all laws necessary for executing these powers.  The president is permitted to veto specific legislative acts, but Congress has the authority to override presidential vetoes by two-thirds majorities of both houses.  The Constitution also provides that the Senate advise and consent on key executive and judicial appointments and on the ratification of treaties.

For over two centuries the Constitution has remained in force because its framers successfully separated and balanced governmental powers to safeguard the interests of majority rule and minority rights, of liberty and equality, and of the central and state governments.  More a concise statement of national principles than a detailed plan of governmental operation, the Constitution has evolved to meet the changing needs of a modern society profoundly different from the eighteenth-century world in which its creators lived.

This annotated version of the Constitution provides the original text (left-hand column) with commentary about the meaning of the original text and how it has changed since 1789 (right-hand column).



Original Text   Explanation
We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.   The Preamble explains the purposes of the Constitution, and defines the powers of the new government as originating from the people of the United States.


Article I

Section 1   Section 2   Section 3   Section 4   Section 5   Section 6   Section 7

Section 8   Section 9   Section 10



Section 1

All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.   The Constitution divides the federal government into three branches, giving legislative powers to a bicameral (two chamber) Congress.


Section 2



The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature.   The House of Representatives was intended to be “the people’s house.”  Its members were elected directly by the voters in the states, and the entire House would have to stand for election every two years.


No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.


  Representatives need to be 25 years old (compared to 30 for senators), and 7 years a citizen (compared to 9 years for senators).  They must be residents within their states at the time of their election, but do not necessarily have to live within their districts.


Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons. The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New-York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.   Membership in the House is apportioned according to the population of the states.  Every state must have at least one House seat.  Larger states will have many more representatives.  Every ten years, after the census has been taken, House districts are reapportioned to reflect their changing population.  For many years the House increased its size as the nation’s population grew, but in 1911 the number of representatives was fixed at 435 (together with non-voting delegates representing several territories and the District of Columbia).  Words in italics indicate provisions that were later dropped from the Constitution.  The 13th amendment abolished slavery and the 14th amendment provided that representation would be determined according to the whole number of persons in each state, not by the “three-fifths” of the slaves.  Since American Indians are now taxed, they are counted for purposes of apportionment.


When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies.


  Vacant House seats must be filled by election.  For the Senate, state governors may fill vacancies.


The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.


  Representatives choose their presiding officer, the Speaker, from among the membership of the majority party.  Other elected officers, such as the chaplain, clerk of the House, sergeant at arms, and doorkeeper, are not members of the House.  Impeachment is the power to remove federal officers.  The House initiates the process by voting to impeach, which then refers the matter to the Senate for a trial.


Section 3



The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote.


  Each state has two senators, regardless of the size of its population.  Originally, senators were chosen by state legislatures.  In 1913 the 17th amendment provided that senators would be directly elected by the people.
Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year; and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies.


  From the beginning, senators were divided into three groups for staggered elections, so that one-third of the seats are filled every two years.  The italicized parts, regarding the filling of vacancies, were altered by the 17th amendment.


No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.   As with representatives, the Constitution fixes the qualifications a person must meet to be eligible to be a senator.


The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.


  As the presiding officer of the Senate, the vice president may vote only to break a tie.


The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of President of the United States.


  Except for the Vice President, the Senate elects its own officers.  The President pro tempore is usually the longest-serving member of the majority party.  Other elected officers include a chaplain, secretary of the Senate, and sergeant at arms, who are not senators.


The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present.   Once the House votes to impeach, the Senate conducts a trial to determine whether to convict or acquit.  A two-thirds vote is necessary to remove the individual from office.  The chief justice of the United States presides over the impeachment trial of a president.
Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law.   Convicted persons can be barred from holding future office, and may be subject to criminal trial in the courts.


Section 4

The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Places of chusing Senators.


  Federal elections are conducted by the individual states, although Congress has gradually enacted laws that regulate those elections.  The 17th amendment made the treatment of the election of senators and representatives the same.
The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day.


  The 20th amendment changed this provision for the convening of Congress from the first Monday in December to the 3rd of January.


Section 5



Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide.


  The House and Senate decide whether their members are qualified to serve and have been properly elected, and determine any disputed elections.  One-half plus one of each house is necessary to make a quorum to conduct business.
Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence of two thirds, expel a Member.


  The Senate and House each sets its own rules, disciplines its own members, and by a two-thirds vote can expel a member.  Censure and lesser punishments require only a majority vote.


Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal.


  The Senate and House each publish journals listing bills passed, amendments offered, motions made, and votes taken.  In addition to these journals, Congress publishes an essentially verbatim account of its debates, called the Congressional Record.  Videotapes of floor proceedings are deposited at the National Archives.


Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.


  This section was included to prevent either chamber from blocking legislation through its refusal to meet.  Each chamber takes very seriously its independence of the other body.  To avoid having to ask the other chamber for permission to adjourn, the Senate and House simply conduct pro forma (as a matter of form) sessions to meet the three-day constitutional requirement.  No business is conducted at these sessions, which generally last for less than one minute.


Section 6



The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. They shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place.


  The “speech or debate” clause is a basic protection of members of Congress in a government of separated powers.  Inherited from the British parliament, the right prevents executive oppression of the legislature, and here protects members from criminal or civil liability in the performance of their legislative responsibilities.


No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been encreased during such time; and no Person holding any Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either House during his Continuance in Office.


  To preserve the separation of powers, no member may be appointed to an executive or judicial office that was created or accept a salary that was increased during the term to which that senator or representative was elected, nor may anyone serving in Congress simultaneously hold office in any other branch of government.


Section 7



All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills.


  The House, directly elected by the people, received authority to originate all tax bills.  The Senate, however, can amend a tax bill, and the support of both houses is necessary for the bill to become law.


Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the United States: If he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it.  If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by Yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law.   The “presentment clause” describes the only way that a bill can become law: it must be passed in identical form by both Houses and it must be signed by the president or passed by a two-thirds vote of Congress over the president’s veto.  If, while Congress is in session, the president does not sign a bill, it automatically becomes law.  If Congress has adjourned or is in recess, the president can “pocket veto” the bill – in a sense, simply putting it in his pocket, unsigned.  Congress cannot override bills that have been pocket vetoed.
Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill.   This clause prevents Congress from circumventing the previous clause by calling a bill something else.  All it means is that any “order, resolution, or vote” that has the force of law must be passed in the manner of a bill.


Section 8



The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;   Section 8 begins the enumerated powers of the federal government delegated to Congress.  The first is the power to tax and to spend the money raised by taxes, to provide for the nation’s defense and general welfare.  This section was supplemented by the 16th amendment, which permitted Congress to levy an income tax.


To borrow Money on the credit of the United States;


  Congress can borrow money through the issuance of bonds and other means.  When it borrows money, the United States creates a binding obligation to repay the debt and cannot repudiate it.


To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes;


  The “commerce clause” is one of the most far-reaching grants of power to Congress.  Interstate commerce covers all movement of people and things across state lines, and every form of communication and transportation.  The commerce clause has permitted a wide variety of federal laws, from the regulation of business to outlawing of racial segregation.  The “Indian commerce clause” has become the main source of power for congressional legislation dealing with Native Americans.


To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States;


  Acts of Congress define the requirements by which immigrants can become citizens.  Only the federal government, not the states, can determine who becomes a citizen.  Bankruptcy laws make provisions for individuals or corporations that fail to pay their debts.


To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;


To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin of the United States;


  These clauses permit Congress to coin money and to issue paper currency.  By extension, under its ability to enact laws “necessary and proper” to carry out these powers (as stated at the end of Article 1, Section 8), Congress created the Federal Reserve System to regulate the nation’s monetary supply.


To establish Post Offices and post Roads;


  The postal powers embrace all measures necessary to establish the system and to insure the safe and speedy transit and prompt delivery of the mails.  Congress may also punish those who use the mails for unlawful purposes.


To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries;


  Copyright and patent protection of authors and inventors are authorized by this clause, although it uses neither word.


To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;


  The Constitution provides only for a Supreme Court, and left it to Congress to create lower (“inferior”) courts, and to set their jurisdictions and duties.


To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offences against the Law of Nations;


  Every sovereign nation possesses these powers, and Congress has acted under this authority from the beginning.


To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water;

To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;

To provide and maintain a Navy;

To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces;

  The “war powers” are defined here and in Article 2, Section 2.  Congress declares war, while the president wages war.  However, presidents have committed U.S. forces leading to conflict without congressional declaration of war in Korea, Vietnam, and other places, provoking national argument over the meaning of these powers.  Congress’ control of funding the military provides another check on the executive branch.


To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions;

To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;

  Under these provisions, the right of the states to maintain a militia, including what is now the National Guard, is always subordinate to the power of Congress.  In 1795 Congress first gave the president authority to call out the militia to suppress insurrections.  Presidents employed this power to enforce federal law during desegregation disputes during the 1950s, and later during the civil disturbances in various cities during the 1960s


To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United States, and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings;—And   This clause enables Congress to govern the District of Columbia.  Congress has now delegated that power to a locally elected government, subject to federal oversight.  Congress also governs forts, arsenals, and other places obtained from the states for the federal government’s purposes.


To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.


  The “elastic clause” enlarges legislative power by enabling Congress to use any means it thinks reasonable to put these powers into action.  This clause also authorizes Congress to enact legislation necessary to carry out the powers of the other branches, for example to organize and reorganize the executive branch.


Section 9



The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person.


  This obsolete provision was designed to protect the slave trade from congressional restriction for a period of time.


The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it.


  Habeas corpus is a judicial device by which jailed people may require their jailer to justify their imprisonment to a court.  It is a fundamental safeguard of individual liberty, and the Supreme Court has interpreted it to give federal courts review over state court convictions and to enforce federal constitutional guarantees.  It is generally accepted that only Congress has the power to suspend habeas corpus.  President Abraham Lincoln’s suspension of the right during the Civil War met with strong opposition.


No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.   A bill of attainder is a legislative act declaring the guilt of an individual or a group of persons and punishing them.  Only the courts may determine whether one has violated a criminal statute.  An ex post facto law declares an act illegal after it has been committed, or increases the punishment for an offense already committed.


No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or enumeration herein before directed to be taken.


  Direct taxes are poll or “head” taxes and taxes on land.  The Supreme Court once held that income taxes were unconstitutional direct taxes, a result overturned by the 16th amendment.
No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State.


  To prohibit discrimination against any states or regions, Congress cannot tax goods exported from a state to foreign countries or those that move between states.
No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another; nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another.


  Congress cannot favor one state against another while regulating trade.


No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time.


  The departments and agencies of the executive branch may not spend any money that Congress has not appropriated, or use federal money for any purpose that Congress has not specified.


No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State.   This clause was designed to end the aristocratic tendencies that the American Revolution had been fought against.  Federal officials must turn over to the government all but minimal gifts from foreign nations.


Section 10

No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.   These provisions protect national powers from state incursions.
No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Control of the Congress.   States may not interfere with the international trade of the United States.
No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay.   States cannot levy tonnage duties, which are taxes charged for the privilege of entering, trading in, or remaining in a port.  States may come together to work on common problems, such as pollution of a river passing through several states, but the agreements or compacts they reach are subject to congressional consent.


Article II

Section 1   Section 2   Section 3   Section 4



Section 1



The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows:   This clause provided the title of the chief executive and defined the term of office.  It says nothing about reelection. George Washington established a two-term tradition, which was not broken until Franklin D. Roosevelt won a third and fourth term. The 22nd amendment now limits presidents to two terms.


Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.   The Constitution established an electoral college as a compromise between direct popular election of the president and election by Congress. The method of selecting electors was left to the states.  Electors are now chosen by popular vote.


The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said House shall in like Manner chuse the President. But in chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representatives from each State having one Vote; a quorum for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice-President.   This clause was superseded by the 12th amendment, after the election of 1800 in which Thomas Jefferson and his running mate, Aaron Burr, received identical votes and both claimed the office. After many votes, the House of Representatives chose Jefferson, and soon thereafter the amendment was speedily approved.


The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.   Congress has enacted legislation requiring that presidential elections (the selection of electors) occur on the Tuesday following the first Monday in November every four years. Electors gather to vote on the Monday after the second Wednesday in December. The two houses of Congress convene to count the electoral ballots on the following January 6.


No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.   This clause requires that in order to take the oath of office a president must be 35, a resident within the United States for 14 years, and a natural-born citizen. This last requirement raises the question of whether someone born to American parents outside of the United States would be eligible to hold the office.


In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the Same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.   The 25th amendment superseded this clause regarding presidential disability, vacancy of the office, and methods of succession.


The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be encreased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States, or any of them.   To preserve the president’s independence, Congress can neither raise nor lower the president’s salary during his term.  Nor can a president accept any other pay.


Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:—”I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.”   The Constitution prescribes the oath that presidents must take. By contrast, Congress by statute created the oath taken by other federal officials, including the vice president.


Section 2



The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to Grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.   As Commander in Chief, the president controls the military forces. Presidents have also cited this power as extending to their control of national and foreign policy in war and peacetime. Congress may not restrain the president’s power to pardon, except in impeachment cases.


He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.   The Constitution gives the Senate a share in foreign policy by requiring Senate consent, by a two-thirds vote, to any treaty before it may go into effect. The president may enter into “executive agreements” with other nations without the Senate’s consent, but if these involve more than minor matters they may prove controversial.

The president must also submit judicial and major executive branch nominations to the Senate for its advice and consent. The Constitution makes no provision for the removal of executive officers, which has remained largely at the discretion of the president.



The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session.   When the Senate is not in session, and therefore unable to receive nominations, the president may make recess appointments. The Senate will then consider the nomination when it returns to session.


Section 3



He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information on the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the Officers of the United States.   The duty to deliver to Congress an annual address, known as the State of the Union message, is the basis of the president’s legislative leadership. Presidents have frequently summoned Congress into “extra” or “special” sessions, but they have never exercised the power to adjourn Congress. The law enforcement function has been a source of the president’s control over the executive branch, however the laws that the president is to execute are the laws that Congress passes, and those laws constrain as well as empower the chief executive.


Section 4



The President, Vice President and all Civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.   Impeachment is the ultimate power of Congress to deter and to punish abuse of power by officers of the executive and judicial branches. Federal judges constitute the greater number of impeached and convicted officers. President Andrew Johnson won acquittal by a single vote, and President Richard Nixon resigned before he could be impeached.  President Bill Clinton was impeached by the House and acquitted by the Senate.


Article III

Section 1   Section 2   Section 3



Section 1



The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behaviour, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services, a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office.   This clause identifies the third branch of our separated government, empowering the courts to decide cases and limiting them to the exercise of a certain kind of authority. The Constitution makes no mention of judicial review, the right of the Supreme Court to declare federal and state laws unconstitutional. The Court asserted this right in the case of Marbury v. Madison in 1803 and on more than 120 occasions since then. For the sake of independence, justices and judges are given life tenures, subject only to removal by impeachment, and a guarantee that their salaries cannot be reduced.


Section 2



The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority;—to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public ministers and Consuls;—to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction;—to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party;—to Controversies between two or more States;—between a State and Citizens of another State;—between Citizens of different States;—between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.   The use of  “cases” and “controversies” emphasizes the nature of the judicial power. These words encompass the concepts of adversity between parties, and require that litigants must have suffered injury sufficient to invoke the power of a federal court.


In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress shall make.   Certain cases may be brought directly to the Supreme Court without having been heard by another court. Under statute, the Supreme Court also exercises appellate review, that is the right to review the decisions of a lower federal or state court.


The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed.   Anyone accused of a crime has a right to a trial by jury, except in the case of impeachments. This right was further defined and strengthened by the 6th, 7th, 8th, and 9th amendments.


Section 3



Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court.

The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attainted.

  This clause limits Congress’ ability to define treason or to set its punishment, as a means of preventing political “offenders” from being charged as traitors. At least two witnesses must testify in court that the defendant committed a treasonable act.


Article IV

Section 1   Section 2   Section 3   Section 4



Section 1



Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof.   Each state is required to recognize the laws and records (such as licenses) of other states and to enforce rights in its own courts that would be enforced in other state courts.


Section 2



The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States.   States must treat the citizens of other states equally, without discrimination.


A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on Demand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.   The governor of a state in which a fugitive is found must return the fugitive to the state demanding custody.


No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due.   This clause, applicable to fleeing slaves, is now obsolete.


Section 3



 New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress.   By acts of Congress, newly settled or newly acquired areas will be admitted as states on an equal status with those states already in the Union.


The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or of any particular State.   Congress has charge of the public lands within the states, which in the West constitutes an enormous amount of land. Congress also governs acquired territories, which today include Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and American Samoa.


Section 4



The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestic Violence.   Under this provision, Congress has authorized presidents to send federal troops into a state to guarantee law and order.


Article V

The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as Part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.   The Constitution may be amended in two ways. The standard device, used for all amendments so far, is for both houses of Congress to pass by two-thirds vote a proposal, which they send to the states for ratification, either by state legislatures or by conventions within the states. An amendment is ratified when three-fourths of the states approve. The Constitution also authorizes a national convention, when two-thirds of the states petition Congress for such a convention, to propose amendments, which would also have to be ratified by three-quarters of the states.


Article VI

All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.

This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any state to the Contrary notwithstanding.

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States.

  The new federal government assumed the financial obligations of the old government under the Articles of Confederation.

The “supremacy clause” is the most important guarantor of national union.  It assures that the Constitution and federal laws and treaties take precedence over state law and binds all judges to adhere to that principle in their courts.

State and federal officials, whether legislative, executive, or judicial, must take an oath to uphold and defend the Constitution.  No religious test, either an avowal or a repudiation of any religious belief, shall ever be required of any public officeholder in the United States.



Article VII

The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same.   The Constitutional Convention met under the Government of the Articles of Confederation, which required unanimous assent of all 13 states to change any provisions of the Articles. Nevertheless, the Constitution mandated that the new government would go into effect when nine of the 13 states acted affirmatively.





Amendment I (1791)   Amendment II (1791)

Amendment III (1791)   Amendment IV (1791)

Amendment V (1791)   Amendment VI (1791)

Amendment VII (1791)   Amendment VIII (1791)

Amendment IX (1791)   Amendment X (1791)

Amendment XI (1798)   Amendment XII (1804)

Amendment XIII (1865)   Amendment XIV (1868)

Amendment XV (1870)   Amendment XVI (1913)

Amendment XVII (1913)   Amendment XVIII (1919)

Amendment XIX (1920)   Amendment XX (1933)

Amendment XXI (1933)   Amendment XXII (1951)

Amendment XXIII (1961)   Amendment XXIV (1964)

Amendment XXV (1967)   Amendment XXVI (1971)

Amendment XXVII (1992)



Amendment I (1791)

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.   The first ten amendments comprise the Bill of Rights. The first amendment protects religious freedom by prohibiting the establishment of an official or exclusive church or sect. Free speech and free press are protected, although they can be limited for reasons of defamation, obscenity, and certain forms of state censorship, especially during wartime. The freedom of assembly and petition also covers marching, picketing and pamphleteering.


Amendment II (1791)

A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.   Whether this provision protects the individual’s right to own firearms or whether it deals only with the collective right of the people to arm and maintain a militia has long been debated.


Amendment III (1791)

No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.   This virtually obsolete provision was in response to anger over the British military practice of quartering soldiers in colonists’ homes.


Amendment IV (1791)

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.   Applying to arrests and to searches of persons, homes, and other private places, this amendment requires a warrant, thereby placing a neutral magistrate between the police and the citizen.


Amendment V (1791)

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.   Indictment by a grand jury requires the decision of ordinary citizens to place one in danger of conviction. Double jeopardy means that when one has been convicted or acquitted, the government cannot place that person on trial again. The self-incrimination clause means that the prosecution must establish guilt by independent evidence and not by extorting a confession from the suspect, although voluntary confessions are not precluded.  Due process of the law requires the government to observe proper and traditional methods in depriving one of an important right. Finally, when the government seizes property to use in the public interest, it must pay the owner fair value.


Amendment VI (1791)

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.   Defendants in criminal cases are entitled to public trials that follow relatively soon after initiation of the charges. Witnesses must be brought to the trial to testify before the defendant, judge, and jury. Defendants are also entitled to compel witnesses on their behalf to appear and testify.


Amendment VII (1791)

In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.   Mistrustful of judges, the people insisted on the right to jury trial in civil cases. The minimum level, $20, is so low today that it would burden the federal judiciary, so various devices have been developed to permit alternative resolution of disputes.


Amendment VIII (1791)

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.   Neither bail nor punishment for a crime are to be unreasonably severe. The “cruel and unusual punishments” clause has been the basis for challenges to the death penalty.


Amendment IX (1791)

The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.   Failure of the Constitution to mention a specific right does not mean that the government can abridge that right, but its protection has to be found elsewhere.


Amendment X (1791)

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.   The federal government is the recipient of constitutionally delegated powers.  What is not delegated remains in the states or in the people.


Amendment XI (1798)

The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.   When the Supreme Court held in the 1793 case Chisholm v. Georgia that a state could be sued in federal court under Article III of the Constitution, this amendment was rapidly adopted.  It provided that states could only be sued in state courts.


Amendment XII (1804)

The Electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate;—The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted;—The person having the greatest Number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President—The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.   After the disputed election of 1800, this amendment required separate designation of presidential and vice presidential candidates, each of whom must meet the same qualifications for eligibility as the president.


Amendment XIII (1865)

Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

  President Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation did not apply to slavery in the states that had not seceded. To abolish slavery entirely, Congress proposed this amendment, which also gave Congress specific authority to enforce the amendment by legislation. Under these provisions, Congress has legislated against slavery-like conditions, such as peonage.


Amendment XIV (1868)

Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

Section 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.

Section 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.

Section 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.

Section 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.

  In the Dred Scott decision of 1857, the Supreme Court had said that African-Americans were not citizens. This amendment declared that every person born or naturalized in the U.S. was a citizen. The amendment’s “due process” clause has had enormous constitutional importance, since the Supreme Court has used it to apply most of the Bill of Rights to the states. The amendment also establishes that all citizens are entitled to “equal protection of the laws,” the provision which the Supreme Court cited in Brown v. Board of Education in 1954, ruling school segregation unconstitutional.


Amendment XV (1870)

Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

  This amendment was designed to protect the right of African-Americans to vote and has served as the foundation for such legislation as the Voting Rights Act of 1965.


Amendment XVI (1913)

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.   In 1895 the Supreme Court had declared a federal income tax law unconstitutional. This amendment reversed that decision and authorized a tax on income.


Amendment XVII (1913)

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.

When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.

This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.

  The original system of having state legislatures elect U.S. senators began to break down with the growth of political parties in the mid-19th century.  Disagreements between and within parties produced deadlocks that delayed state legislative business and left states without their full Senate representation, often for lengthy periods. This amendment provides for senators to be elected the way members of the House are—by direct election of the people.


Amendment XVIII (1919)

Section 1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.

Section 2. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.

  The “noble experiment” of Prohibition was instituted by this amendment, only to be repealed 14 years later by the 21st amendment.


Amendment XIX (1920)

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.

Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

  The Constitution has never prohibited women from voting and for many years before the adoption of this amendment women did vote in several states. The 19th amendment established a uniform rule for all states to follow in guaranteeing women this right.


Amendment XX (1933)

Section 1. The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin.

Section 2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

Section 3. If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President elect shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President shall have qualified.

Section 4. The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them.

Section 5. Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the ratification of this article.

Section 6. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission.

  This so-called “Lame-Duck” amendment reduced the previous four-month period between the November elections and the March 4 starting date of congressional and presidential terms. This ended the custom, when both terms expired on the same day, that required outgoing presidents to sit outside the Senate chamber waiting to sign last-minute legislation. Also, under this amendment, if a presidential election were thrown into the House of Representatives following a deadlock in the January 6 counting of electoral ballots, that decision would be made by a newly elected House rather than one set to go out of existence on March 4.


Amendment XXI (1933)

Section 1. The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed.

Section 2.  The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited.

Section 3.  This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.

  In repealing Prohibition, this was the only amendment that the states ratified by conventions rather than by legislatures.


Amendment XXII (1951)

Section 1. No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of the President more than once. But this Article shall not apply to any person holding the office of President, when this Article was proposed by the Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as President, during the term within which this Article becomes operative from holding the office of President or acting as President during the remainder of such term.

Section 2. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission to the States by the Congress.

  George Washington established the custom of presidents serving no longer than two terms. Following Franklin D. Roosevelt’s election to third and fourth terms, this amendment set a future limit at two terms.


Amendment XXIII (1961)

Section 1. The District constituting the seat of Government of the United States shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may direct:

A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a State, but in no event more than the least populous State; they shall be in addition to those appointed by the States, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of the election of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a State; and they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment.

Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

  In authorizing the creation of a federal district as seat of government, the Framers made no provision for the suffrage rights of persons who resided there. This amendment for the first time, effective with the 1964 election, gave District of Columbia residents the opportunity to vote for three presidential electors.


Amendment XXIV (1964)

Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax.

Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

  The poll tax was the last surviving instance of a property qualification for the suffrage, and it was in effect, at the time of the adoption of this amendment, in only five States. The amendment was offered as a removal of another obstacle to the right to vote.


Amendment XXV (1967)

Section 1. In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.

Section 2. Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.

Section 3. Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.

Section 4. Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.

Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.

  This amendment clarifies the Constitution’s previously ambiguous language about presidential succession, explicitly confirming the long-standing custom that when a president dies in office the vice president becomes president, rather than acts as president.

If the vice presidency becomes vacant, the president may nominate a new vice president, subject to the confirmation of both the House and Senate.  The amendment also provides procedures for replacing a president who becomes incapacitated.



Amendment XXVI (1971)

Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age.

Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

  During the Vietnam War, this amendment lowered the voting age in federal and state elections to 18, the same age at which young men could be drafted for military service.


Amendment XXVII (1992)

No law varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives shall take effect, until an election of Representatives shall have intervened.   More than two hundred years after it was proposed as part of the original Bill of Rights, this amendment prohibited members of Congress from receiving an increase in salary until after the next election had been held.

S.PUB.103-21 Prepared by the Office of the Secretary of the Senate with the assistance of Johnny H. Killian of the Library of Congress.








NATIONAL REVIEW ONLINE          www.nationalreview.com

Progressive Racism

By Paul A. Rahe

April 11, 2013 4:00 A.M.

One hundred years ago today, Woodrow Wilson brought Jim Crow to the North. He had been inaugurated on March 4, 1913. At a cabinet meeting on April 11, his postmaster general, Albert S. Burleson, suggested that the new administration segregate the railway mail service; and treasury secretary William G. McAdoo, who would soon become Wilson’s son-in-law, chimed in to signal his support. Wilson followed their lead. He had made a bid for the African-American vote in 1912, and he had attracted the support of figures such as W. E. B. Du Bois, but, as he put it at the meeting, he had made “no promises in particular to Negroes, except to do them justice.” Burleson’s proposal he welcomed, but he wanted “the matter adjusted in a way to make the least friction.”

Today, self-styled progressives are wont, with considerable abandon, to label as racists those who object to their attempts at social engineering. They would do well to rein in their rhetorical excesses and curb their enthusiasm for the administrative state — for the Progressives of yesteryear, on whom they model themselves, really were racists in the precise and proper sense of the term, and in formulating public policy they were true to their principles.

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, ordinary Americans may generally have been in the grips of ethnic prejudice of one sort or another. The Progressives of that time were not, however, ordinary men, and they knew it. Like their successors today, they dominated America’s universities. With some justification, they thought of themselves as an intellectual elite; and, with rare exceptions, they enthusiastically embraced eugenics and racial theory. That the inchoate racial prejudices of their contemporaries were grounded in fact they took to be a truth taught by science; and, being devotees of rational administration to the exclusion of all other concerns, they insisted that public policy conform to the dictates of the new racial science.

Wilson, our first professorial president, was a case in point. He was the very model of a modern Progressive, and he was recognized as such. He prided himself on having pioneered the new science of rational administration, and he shared the conviction, dominant among his brethren, that African-Americans were racially inferior to whites. With the dictates of Social Darwinism and the eugenics movement in mind, in 1907, he campaigned in Indiana for the compulsory sterilization of criminals and the mentally retarded; and in 1911, while governor of New Jersey, he proudly signed into law just such a bill.

Prior to the segregation of the civil service in 1913, appointments had been made solely on merit as indicated by the candidate’s performance on the civil-service examination. Thereafter, racial discrimination became the norm. Photographs came to be required at the time of application, and African-Americans knew they would not be hired. The existing work force was segregated. Many African-Americans were dismissed. In the postal service, others were transferred to the dead-letter office, where they had no contact with the general public. Those who continued to work in municipal post offices labored behind screens — out of sight and out of mind. When the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and the National Independent Political League objected to the new policy, Wilson — a Presbyterian elder who was nothing if not high-minded — vigorously defended it, arguing that segregation was in the interest of African-Americans. For 35 years, segregation in the civil service would be public policy. It was only after Adolf Hitler gave eugenics and “scientific racism” a bad name that segregation came to seem objectionable.

If Wilson’s new policy encountered little opposition, it was because a change of sentiment had taken place. Jim Crow had not been the norm before 1890, even in the deep South. As C. Vann Woodward noted nearly 60 years ago, in The Strange Career of Jim Crow, it became the norm there only when it received sanction from the racist Progressives in the North. Their influence was profound and pervasive. In 1900, E. L. Godkin, founder and longtime editor of The Nation, saw the handwriting on the wall. In the pages of that journal, he lamented that “the Declaration of Independence no longer arouses enthusiasm; it is an embarrassing instrument which requires to be explained away. The Constitution is said to be ‘outgrown.’” Those who once “boasted that it had secured for the negro the rights of humanity and citizenship” now listen “in silence to the proclamation of white supremacy” and make “no protest against the nullifications of the Fifteenth Amendment.”

Wilson championed the trend identified by Godkin. In his presidential campaign in 1912, he told his compatriots, “We are in the presence of a new organization of society.” Our time marks “a new social stage, a new era of human relationships, a new stage-setting for the drama of life,” and “the old political formulas do not fit the present problems: they read now like documents taken out of a forgotten age.” What Thomas Jefferson had once taught is now, he contended, utterly out of date. It is “what we used to think in the old-fashioned days when life was very simple.”

Above all, Wilson wanted to persuade his compatriots to get “beyond the Declaration of Independence.” That document “did not mention the questions of our day,” he told his countrymen. “It is of no consequence to us.” He regarded it as “an eminently practical document, meant for the use of practical men; not a thesis for philosophers, but a whip for tyrants; not a theory of government, but a program of action.” For the rights of individuals celebrated in that document and for the limits on the scope of government implicit in its celebration of those particular rights, he had no use. They were, he recognized, an obstacle to rational administration of the very sort exemplified by his subsequent segregation of the civil service.

For similar reasons, Wilson was hostile to the constitutional provisions intended as a guarantee of limited government. The separation of powers, the balances and checks, and the distribution of authority between nation and state distinguishing the American constitution he regarded as an obstacle to the formation and pursuit of rational public policy. “Government” he considered “not a machine, but a living thing . . . accountable to Darwin, not to Newton.” Nothing of that sort could, he believed, “have its organs offset against each other, as checks, and live.” Its health was “dependent upon” the “quick co-operation” of these organs, “their ready response to the commands of instinct or intelligence, their amicable community of purpose.” Wilson was the first to call for there to be a “living” political constitution “Darwinian in structure and in practice.” To this end, in running for the presidency he openly sought “permission — in an era in which ‘development,’ ‘evolution,’ is the scientific word — to interpret the Constitution according to Darwinian principle.”

Today’s progressives eschew Social Darwinism and the pseudo-scientific racism espoused by their intellectual forebears, and they oppose racial segregation and the sterilization of criminals and the mentally retarded. But they are no less confident of their own righteousness than were the Progressives of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and they have no more respect for the rights espoused in the Declaration of Independence, for limited government, and for constitutional forms than did their predecessors. On this day, the hundredth anniversary of Wilson’s segregation of the civil service, they ought to reflect on the terrible damage apt to be done by an unlimited government disdainful of the natural rights of man and dedicated to rational administration as envisaged by fallible men.

— Paul A. Rahe, a professor of history at Hillsdale College, is the author of Soft Despotism, Democracy’s Drift.



That sums it up!